Theory, meet practice. Practice, meet theory.


Partial list of speakers

Below is a preview of the exciting and thought-provoking presentations we can expect from the conference in December. The list is incomplete and currently being updated as speakers and presentations are confirmed. The list also not sorted in any particular order. To find keywords or author names, use Ctrl-F function of your browser (in Macs or OS devices, use Command+F). A complete and functionally indexed list will be made available soon in the Programme page of this website, including the time and venue of each presentation.

IPBA-3 and DBM-VI 2018 Accepted Papers with Abstracts

Mohamed Alansaari. The role of strategic place branding communications in attracting FDI: toward a sustainable competitiveness of places
Abstract: The advancement of technology and globalization has developed a framework of unprecedented level of competitiveness between cities and nations worldwide. The ever changing market trends has made places very competitive in the strive to access and attract local, regional and international investments, talent and tourists. In this regard the notion of “place brand” has risen to become an important factor for cities and nations to get a competitive edge on their competitors. The brand of a place has an integral role in the ability to diversify global market shares in terms of consumers, investors, exports and tourists (Outhavong,2007). Hence, place branding has become one of the most crucial communication tools being invested in by governments. That said brand communication strategies deployed by governments can take different forms and measuring their impact and usefulness in enhancing the place image and ultimately ability to attract tourists, talents and foreign direct investment is a task not undertaken by many scholars. Thus this study intends to construct a measuring tool to identify place images and measure the impact of brand communication strategies deployed by governments on place brand image and ultimately its relation to attracting FDI. The study is of importance because generally quantitative studies in the domain of place branding are very limited. Additionally, research conducted on place branding communications constitute as an area of that has not been thoroughly investigated in the MENA region.
Árpád Papp-Váry. Hungary or Magyarország? - Which 'brand name' is better from a country branding perspective?
Abstract: "What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other word would smell as sweet,” writes Shakespeare. But he is wrong: a rose by any other name would not be as fragrant.
Marketers (and, in many cases, consumers) are well aware of this from the world of branded products: a cleverly chosen brand name can significantly increase the value of a lesser quality product, while a poor brand name may hinder the sales of a quality product.
It might be strange, but this analogy is also valid for countries. In many cases, we judge a country or nation by its name if we do not know anything about it. Therefore it is an important dilemma to decide which name Hungary shall use in each country. The adjective "hun" of the country name "Hungary” refers to Huns and their ruler, Attila. We might think that this is an advantage, but in most cases they are considered barbarians, who ravaged Europe.
The study attempts to resolve this dilemma and makes suggestions, while other countries (and their names) are also discussed.
Viriya Taecharungroj. A Place Brand Management Cycle: Bridging Academics and Practitioners in Place Branding
Abstract: One of the main issues in place branding research is its relevance to practices. Seemingly, place branding research cannot gain sufficient attention and admiration from practitioners. Many practitioners do not believe their needs in place branding are met by place branding research (Govers, Kaefer, & Ferrer-Roca, 2017). What practitioners need from academics are clear concepts, definitions, usage of key terms, and practical management tools (Govers et al., 2017; Kavaratzis, 2015). Due to the complexity of place brands, those practical tools should incorporate a range of brand elements that is broad enough to establish a comprehensive understanding (Zenker, 2011). In 2009, Ashworth and Kavaratzis wrote that there is no widely accepted blueprint for place brand management. Since then, there were some tools and frameworks developed by scholars to bridge this gap such as the strategic place brand management model (Hanna & Rowley, 2013) and the 4D place branding model (Fan, 2014). However, these models have certain limitations that can be further developed.

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to introduce a comprehensive and practical model called a place brand management cycle (PBM-Cycle). A PBM-Cycle model in Figure 1 illustrates the four actions place brand managers can take to manage a place brand and eleven place brand elements within those actions. The four actions (4As) include arranging, assessing, articulating, and activating. This new model is different from existing models because not only it is a comprehensive model that incorporates essential brand elements and actions, but it is also a compilation of other tools developed by academics in the field of place branding. The purpose of this model development is therefore, to utilise valuable academic works by previous scholars and present them in a coherent manner. The author compiled a tools and frameworks developed by place branding researchers (Table 1). In order to manage a place brand, place brand managers are encouraged to use the PBM-Cycle as a foundation and to incorporate tools that are relevant to a specific context. This conceptual paper also puts forth some research agendas for place branding researchers:
1. A further study to identify the tool or the set of tools that are suitable for specific contexts, e.g. an image crisis, a decline in tourism, or a lack of position
2. A systematic literature review according to various place brand elements
3. A rigorous study on causal relationships among brand elements
Dr. Michael Chattalas and Dr. Irawati Priyanti. National Stereotype Effects on High versus Low-Contact Service Expectations: Branding Indonesia
Abstract: Extended Abstract
To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to explore the impact of national stereotypes (perceived warmth and perceived competence) associated with a service-product's nation-brand, as regards high versus low-contact service-type. Specifically, our first field experiment tests for the differential effect of perceived warmth and perceived competence on service-quality expectations by US consumers of high-contact versus low-contact telecommunication services originating from the emerging Asian nation of Indonesia versus that of the emerged Asian economy of Japan. A follow-up study tests the effects of priming competence and warmth via online-video advertisements on US consumer evaluations of low-contact Indonesian telecommunication services. Results of our Study 1 show that perceived competence effects more positive service expectations of both low and high-contact services, whereas perceived warmth has a significant effect only on evaluations of high-contact services. Furthermore, parallel results were found after subjects were primed with online video advertising manipulations of Indonesian competence and warmth in Study 2.
Overall, our findings provide empirical evidence that national stereotypes associated with COO influence consumers' evaluations of services. Our study is the first to empirically demonstrate the relatively higher effect of perceptions of warmth associated with a country’s people (versus perceptions of competence) on services with a high level of customer contact.
Our experimental studies’ results hold practical implications for both international marketers as well as public policy-makers engaged in nation-branding. As high-contact services involve a higher experiential component, the stronger impact of a warmly-perceived COO implies that export service providers in industries such as tourism and hospitality must be trained to project a higher level of emotional and cultural intelligence.
Results of our follow-up study imply that NS perception could be repositioned by priming higher consumer knowledge, akin to nation-branding advertising or international communication programs. If the kind of service is low-contact (such as technology and knowhow exports), it will be more deliberate to provide information which improves competence perceptions. Conversely, if service type is high-contact (such as calling centers exports), it may be advisable to promote warmth perceptions. Nevertheless, results of our first study show that perceived competence effects positive service expectations of both low and high-contact services, whereas perceived warmth impacts only high-contact services. Further research is needed to investigate this asymmetrical effect of stereotype contents, showing evidence of the primacy of competence over warmth across service type.
Jose Castillo. The Marginalized Sounds of Peru: Peruvian Music Diplomacy
Abstract: Perú’s musical traditions have not received the same international push from the Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the same way Peruvian gastronomy has. In the following report, I place Peruvian Music as the logical counterpart to its cuisine and propose stronger Music Diplomacy efforts to be incorporated into the existing national brand. I analyze the cultural importance of the sounds that in my opinion constitute the best exponents of Peruvian Music: Chicha (Peruvian Cumbia) and Afro-Peruvian music. For each style, I describe the marginalized communities (migrant Amerindian in one case and Afro-descendant in the other) these music styles originated from, as well as identify and compare the independent players, both domestic and international, behind Peruvian Music’s limited international exposure. The conclusion drawn from the analysis of the music diplomacy efforts behind both styles is that music diplomacy can address Perú’s issues of poverty, inequality and racism in a way gastro-diplomacy has not been able to do. Tourists visiting Perú attracted by gastro-diplomacy encounter a much more heterogeneous and underrepresented society than the one portrayed in the national brand. I conclude that the multi-racial nature of Chicha and Afro-Peruvian music, can help Perú mitigate this racism and inequality while at the same time create a more “well-rounded” image abroad. For Music Diplomacy recommendations, I recommend the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to engage in stronger musical exchanges and musical education efforts. Musical and educational exchanges with countries like Ecuador and Colombia, countries that share similar cultures shaped by their Amerindian and Afro-descendant population, can find a common ground in their musical roots and collaborate through workshops, music festivals and recorded collaborations. I also recommend the Foreign Ministry to push the Peruvian government towards subsidizing efforts, like the ones in Cuba and Brazil, where communities get an economic support for promoting the music of their country.
Anne-Flore Maman Larraufie and Angela Sargeni. Destination Branding in Haute-villégiature – a Practitioners' perspective
Abstract: Practitioners and market research companies have identified a shift from consuming luxury goods to consuming luxury experiences (Atwal and Williams, 2009, Beverland and Lindgreen, 2002). Esp. there is a boom of consumption of exceptional travels/stays/journeys from all cultural origins and all-around the world. Companies have emerged, whose duty is to craft the journey for these clients. They call themselves travel designers. Simultaneously, the usual players from the hospitality and travel industry (e.g. hotels, yacht renting companies, airlines, etc.) challenge the limits of their offer, showcasing unique and sometimes time-limited “products”. This is the equivalent of Haute-couture in the travel industry: Haute-villégiature.
Haute-Villégiature has been defined (Maman Larraufie and Sargeni, 2018) as being about designing and delivering travel experiences with the highest quality standards, by highly knowledgeable people who are experts in their business and led by passion. Each Maison has its own style and personality, but all are creative and innovative to surprize and exceed expectations of their clients. These clients are unique and have specific expectations. The overall objective of Haute Villégiature is thus to be a wow factor in the travel industry. We want to understand in the present study how actors of Haute-villégiature use destination branding (or shape it) in their strategy. Especially, as origin is fundamental in luxury branding (Aiello et al., 2009, Maman Larraufie, 2013) and marketing, we expect a close interplay in-between their branding strategy and the destination branding strategy. We want to understand the synergies and/or tensions.
Using a professional event, The Edge of Luxury, that will gather in June 2018 a series of main actors from Haute-villégiature, we will explore our research question using two different methodologies: face-to-face interviews with these actors (in-depth semi-directive interviews) and desk research of their communication material (website, brochures, …). All data will be addressed using content analysis (Berelson, 1952, Cavanagh, 1997). As this study is exploratory, it is hard to predict its results. We will confront these with how destination branding is used by companies in general, esp. in the luxury industry.
Olga Rauhut Kompaniets. A ‘bottom-up’ place marketing initiative: Destination Lund Sweden
Abstract: Background. While New York Times and Guardian described Lund and the southernmost region in Sweden as an undiscovered pearl waiting to be explored, the local tourism office of Lund asked tourists to go to visit sights far away from Lund. This is not due to a huge and steady flow of tourists visiting the city of Lund. Lund is the oldest town in Scandinavia, with a rich and fascinating history.
Aim. This paper aims at discussing the citizen initiative to place market Lund. In 2016, some citizens in Lund reacted against the dismantling of the place brand by the local tourism office, first in a Facebook group, and later in the association “Destination Lund Sweden” 2017. All members are volunteers.
Main approach. A Process-Oriented Approach is adapted in this paper. Such approach regards problem solving as a consistent process that includes a range of phases, steps, stages and procedures to address the problem by creating one or several alternative solutions.
Key arguments/findings. By using modern technologies and the fact that many of the members are experienced travellers, a set of downloadable material for smart phones and tablets in several languages have been developed: maps, guides, films and useful links. All material is free of charge on the Facebook page and at the blog. The local tourism office run by the municipality oppose – and even combat – these efforts, as they want the tourists to come to their office and buy their printed products.
The digital map of sights and attractions, practical information (ATMs, toilets, bike stations etc.) has been a virtual success. The biking tour around the battle field of the Battle of Lund has been highlighted by the Swedish Tourism Association. Moreover, some busloads of tourists have arrive to Lund.
Conclusion. Several lessons can be learned from Lund. The locals are the best ambassadors for a place; Kotler is right indeed. Know-how and enthusiasm can achieve more in place marketing than the official tourism office with a budget. Moreover, the third sector can play an important role in place marketing activities. A key to successful place marketing lays in a good product and to master marketing through social media.
Herve Atayi. Unlocking the garden of Eden: a postcolonial reading of tourists and locals' image of the Seychelles
Abstract: There is a growing interest in destinations’ image formation and in particular how third world countries and their hosts are represented in tourist brochures.
It has been argued that brochures influence tourists’ decisions by appealing to their presuppositions, beliefs and expectations using well-crafted wordings evoking paradise, exoticism and the surreal. Theoretical frameworks drawn from the social sciences have been used to explain and understand destinations’ image formation in third world countries. However, none of them have examined, in-depth, the Indian Ocean, thus making the region under-studied, in particular the island of the Seychelles. Moreover, the formation of the image of a destination is consistently represented through tourist brochures and the media, thus neglecting the lived experience of tourists and locals alike.
The main objective in this research is to understand how the image of the Seychelles is represented by tourists and locals.
Using photo-elicitation, combined with in-depth interviews and from post-colonial perspective and reading, this paper seeks to understand how tourists and locals experience the image of the Seychelles. By doing so, the researcher will attempt to bridge the gap between what is marketed in brochures and the actual lived experience in the Seychelles using a phenomenological approach.
In Mei Iao. Understanding Travel Characteristics of Mainland Chinese Casino Tourists to Macao: Who Are They?
Abstract: Macao has experienced significant changes in economy and tourism development (e.g. visitor arrivals, types of visitors) as a result of the liberalization of its gaming industry, the ease of travel restrictions for mainland Chinese travellers via the introduction of the Individual Visit Scheme policy, and the new position as the World Centre of Tourism and Leisure by integrating the newly established attractions and resorts. These incidents and factors may eventually lead to the evolvement in the types and characteristics of visitors, the emergence of new segments and changes in the pattern of visitor attitudes and behaviours on the trip to Macao.
This article presents the preliminary findings of a survey of 600 mainland Chinese casino tourists and gamblers, with the purpose of identifying the profile of these mainland visitors to Macao, and providing a better understanding about this segment on their socio-demographic and trip-related characteristics. It was long believed that casino gambling in Macao is a prominent activity for mainland Chinese tourists. The results, however, revealed that majority of them were leisure focused on the trip to Macao. They would undertake many other non-gaming tourism activities like shopping and dining. They have also been sightseeing outdoors and visited World Heritage sites. Casinos are just one stop on their itinerary in Macao. This leisure group of mainland casino tourists are important to the travel market of Macao.
This information might provide a starting point for an evolutionary analysis of mainland Chinese casino tourists' profile, and offer some insights to destination marketers and casino marketers when devising marketing strategies, designing products, services and activities that meet the needs of the clientele segments.
Gurpreet Kour and Mihalis Kavaratzis. Destination campaigns as strategic brand building tools: The multi-case study of four Indian states.
Abstract: Aims and Approach:
This study argues for a stronger link between destination campaigns and destination brand-building. We examine campaigns in their wide role as strategic tools rather than as narrow, operational marketing tools. The main aim is to identify and critically discuss the key dimensions of destination promotional campaigns and assess the factors that enhance their potential contribution to the destination brand. Marketing communications in general, and destination campaigns in particular, play a crucial role in the destination brand-building process (Morgan et al, 2002). However, this role has not been clarified adequately, especially in terms of the link to identity-making processes (Kavaratzis and Hatch, 2013) of a destination by its main stakeholders (Sheehan et al, 2007) and in relation to the significance of internal stakeholders for creating a destination brand (Konecnik & Go, 2008; Pike & Page, 2014). We argue that this leaves a gap in our understanding of the strategic contribution of destination campaigns to the wider destination brand-building process, which needs to be explored.

Methodology and Findings:
We use a series of in-depth interviews with DMOs and advertising agencies in a multi-case methodology to examine the campaigns of four Indian states (Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Rajasthan and Gujarat). Within-case analysis provides information on each campaign’s development, the media and creative strategy, the campaign planning process and its critical components. Cross-case analysis identifies common patterns and dimensions that are significant across all cases. Our findings show that six key dimensions can be considered as value enhancers for the campaign planning process and its success: a) strategic brand orientation, b) destination product development, c) destination leadership, d) stakeholder involvement, e) client-agency relationship and f) destination communications.

Conclusions and Contribution:
These dimensions go beyond the narrow planning of the campaign and allow us to offer a stronger link between campaign planning and brand-building. Differentiation points for the destination brand can be created and communicated if the six key dimensions of the campaigns are understood and if all of them are fully incorporated into destination campaign planning. A campaign planning framework is introduced that incorporates these dimensions and outlines their theoretical and practical significance.


References:

Kavaratzis, M. and Hatch, M.J. (2013), The dynamics of place brands, Marketing Theory, 13(1, 69-86.
Konecnik, M. & Go, F. (2008), Tourism destination brand identity: The case of Slovenia, Journal of Brand Management, 15(3), 177-189.
Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. and Pride, R. (eds) (2002), Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Pike, S. and Page, S. (2014), Destination Marketing Organizations and destination marketing: A narrative analysis of the literature, Tourism Management, 41, 202-227.
Sheehan, Ritchie and Hudson, S. (2007), The Destination Promotion Triad: Understanding Asymmetric Stakeholder Interdependencies Among the City, Hotels, and DMO, Journal of Travel Research, 46(11), 64-74.
Chunying Wen and Yingying Wu. Measuring The Effectiveness of Place Advertisements - From The Perspective of Place Branding
Abstract: Brand articulation and brand communication are the two components of the strategic place brand management process (Hanna and Rowley 2015). Advertising is one of the most common and noticeable vehicles used by places to express themselves through visual and audio messages and to communicate the brand to the target audience. There are still many disputes about whether advertising work in building the place brand. The answer is positive when considering a place as a product. The classical advertising effectiveness theory believes that massive advertising investment helps to stimulate consumption, increase sales and better brand awareness. However, the huge input for media outlets usually accounts for the bulk of the place branding budget, yet the evaluation of the effect remains vague.

Based on previous research, here are three reasons. First, most of the theories on place advertising are borrowed from destination advertising. A considerable part of communication-effect research has focused on the affective and cognitive perception of the advertising campaign or other media exposure, such as the awareness, recall, like/dislike, or the tendency to act(Boo, Busser et al. 2009, Dwyer, Pham et al. 2013, Weaver 2015). However, whoever spends money on media publicity will not be satisfied with the perception level of the effect evaluation. There is a gap between the outcome expectation and the effect evaluation which is based on the cognition assessment.

Second, unlike other products, a place is a complex synthesis, which has the features of both product and service. Meanwhile, it is the emotional connection itself because of its spatial and relationship attributes. Therefore, it has its particularity as the advertising subject. The place brand is a useful tool not only for “establishing distinctive brand recognition and achieving the biggest market competitiveness”, but also for competing with other places for limited, hypermobile financial, human or cultural resources(Kavaratzis and Ashworth 2007). Then, the attracting of consumers, tourist, investors, entrepreneurs, international sporting and cultural events, and the people of other countries was recognized as the main aim and ultimate end of place branding (Anholt 2008) .

Third, the complex value creation process which characterises place branding also creates difficulties in the measurement of performance and brand equity. The empirical measurement of a brand in general can be divided into three main approaches: First, in the form of free brand associations of target customers using qualitative methods (Supphellen 2000) ; secondly, in the form of attributes uncovered with quantitative methods like standardized questionnaires on different brand dimensions (Aaker 1997); and thirdly, with mixed methods such as multidimensional scaling (Carroll and Green 1997), network analyses (Henderson, Iacobucci et al. 2002), the brand concept map method (John, Loken et al. 2006), or the laddering technique based on means-end chain theory (Grunert and Grunert 1995) . However, there was no common understanding on to what extent advertising contributes to the place brand. On one hand, the benefits of strong place brands are shared between stakeholder organisations. These benefits are measured differently by different stakeholder groups and they cannot be aggregated (Hankinson 2012). On the other hand, the measurement typically depends upon the accessibility of data rather than a theoretical model that defines elements or dimensions that are part of a brand (Zenker and Braun 2015).

Recognizing these limitations, this study tries to look beyond the cognition perspective, and find some relationships between the advertising volume and the related benefits of place brand. We all know that it is difficult to draw a causal relationship between media publicity and growth of tourism and economic development, because place branding is complex and sometimes controversial. It is almost impossible to say any success is attributed to one or two attributes. however we still need to reveal what kind of relationships exist between the media expenses and the economic outcome and attractiveness. This research aims to investigate the impact of advertising volume upon local development. More specifically, the research focus on: 1) Are there any correlative relationships between advertising volume and local development and attractiveness? 2)Is there any fitting model to explain the impact between the advertising volume and the dimensions of the local development and attractiveness?

To meet this purpose, this study constructed a data set which is composed of two parts. The first part recruits auditing data of all place and tourism sector advertisements for the China Central Television from 2005 to 2015. And the second part comprises the statistical data which includes the population fluctuation, local GDP, tourism income and industrial investment etc. Given that there are more than 300 places from different administration levels in our original data set, such as provincial, prefecture, and town, we just chose 31 provincial level places in this study.

This is a two-phase research. In the first phase, we are trying to find out the possible relationship between the advertising volume and local development and attractiveness,with 5 variables -the Local GDP、Total Imports and Exports at Customs、Tourism revenue、Migration of Population、the volume of passenger transportation- to measure the local development and attractiveness. Besides, volume(frequency × length)works as an indication of the scale of the city/place advertising expenses. After having pre-judged and standardized the data, we used Pearson correlation rs two-tailed test to see the relationship between the ad volume and the tourism revenues, GDPs, migration of population, the Total Imports and Exports at Customs and the volume of passenger transportation. The results show that the advertising volume has a positive relation with Tourism revenue, and the Correlation Coefficient is 0.218. Thus, in some sense, it implies that advertising volume may have some affect on tourism revenues.

The second phase is based on these results, in which, we attempt to explore the deeper connections between advertising volume and tourism revenues by building a regression model. The related research studies indicate that since the tourism development is affect by many factors, such as seasons, distances, economic conditions and etc., the tourism revenues are also intricately influenced. Consequently, the multiple regression method is largely used in the current studies. After carded related research, this paper classifies the factors affecting tourism revenues into 4 types: number of tourists, local economic development, traffic conditions and tourism resources. Thus, this study attempts to build a multiple regression model with advertising volume as the main observed variable and number of tourists, GDP, total import and export volume, the volume of passenger transportation, and the number of National 5A tourist attractions as control variables.

Through real data analysis, this study has first verified a positive correlation between regional advertising and tourism as an important facet of place brand, and attempted to establish a fitting model to explain how advertising influences tourism revenue. Second, considering advertisements as an important channel of place brand communication, this study draws on quantitative methods of advertising effectiveness assessment, and provides a new perspective for researchers to grasp place brand measurement and a decision basis for practitioners to choose methods of place brand communication, especially in budget design. Yet, this study has only verified whether regional advertising volume and regional tourism are correlated and how they are correlated. It still remains to be explored how advertising, as one way of place brand communication, is linked with a region’s overall branding as well as investment, talent, immigration and other aspects.
Sunny Bose and Sudeepta Pradhan. Regional identity as a basis for customer based place brand equity (CBPBE) and its impact on tourism and investment thereof: A study on West Bengal
Abstract: Purpose – This study developed a psychometrically robust instrument place brand equity in line with Aaker’s (1996a, 1996b) CBBE dimensions from the perspective of regional identity. We call it the Customer Based Place Brand Equity (CBPBE) scale. We subsequently, test this scale on dimensions of destination brand equity and investment attractiveness to see whether as believed by Bose (2014) regional identity enables to generate place’s brand equity thereby brining tourists and investments.

Methodology - The methodology adapted for this study follows the instrument development process suggested by Churchill (1979). For the instrument development, both exploratory and quantitative techniques were applied. The major sources for item generation are national identity studies (Ashmore et al, 2004), place attachment studies (Sinnot, 2005), studies on regional identities (Paasi, 2009; 2010) and studies on predictors of place dimensions (Jorgensen and Stedman, 2001). Thereby, we also conducted focussed group discussions (FGDs) and depth interviews (DIs) to generate items. CFA was carried out on 445 responses collected through web surveys. Subsequently, construct validity check was done. Nomological validity was tested through structural equation modelling (SEM) using a destination brand equity measure. This validity check also served the purpose of analyzing the impact of regional identity on tourism potential of the place. Lastly, investment attractiveness measures were used to complete the study and see whether unique regional identity contributes to the place’s CBPBE thereby enabling it to garner investment.

Findings – We developed a 17 items multidimensional CBPBE scale from the perspective of regional identity. The measures attributed to Brand Salience; Brand Meaning, Perceived Quality, and Brand Attachment dimensions. Subsequent tests on the relationships between the CBPBE dimensions with other brand equity dimensions pertaining to destination branding and investment attractiveness suggested that CBPBE owing to regional identity significantly impacts destination brand loyalty and investment attraction.

Implications - The study addresses place branding and subsequently, place brand equity from the perspective of regional identity of a particular place brand. The instrument would enable managers and practitioners to effectively measure the brand equity of a place due to its unique identity. So, a place can take advantage of its unique identity and the place attachment of locals and their distinct regional identity can serve as the basis for tourism development as well as investment in the place including in the tourism sector.

Magdalena Florek, Marta Herezniak and Anna Augustyn. Measurement system for city brand effectiveness – possibilities and limitations
Abstract: AIM:
The empirical objective of the paper is the diagnosis of the level of advancement of all the 66 Polish district cities in the area of brand strategy effectiveness measurement whereas its exploratory objective is to develop an universal framework for the effectiveness measurement system for the city brand strategy.

MAIN APPROACH:
The research process was divided into four phases. The first phase comprised the analysis of available brand strategies of Polish cities. In the second phase the authors conducted a series of interviews with international experts to verify the theoretical assumptions regarding the potential measurement model. In the third phase the authors carried out 34 face-to-face interviews and 31 telephone interviews (according to the presence or lack of city brand strategy) with the representatives of Polish municipalities. In the final phase, a framework of the effectiveness measurement system for the city brand strategy was developed together with the proposition of structure of brand strategy performance indicators.

KEY ARGUMENTS/ FINDINGS:
The research conducted in Polish cities proves that a brand is important in the process of city management. In order to measure effectiveness of the implementation of brand strategy it is necessary to precisely define the strategic and operational goals of the city's brand and also to focus on both the internal and external areas of the city's functioning. Indicators used for the measurement purposes should be, among others features, easy to use in practice, reliable, functional as well as of qualitative and quantitative nature to measure different aspects of branding effects.

CONLUSIONS:
In the first place the measurement of the city's brand effectiveness should be treated as a strategic endeavour. Mainly because it is a very complex issue, where the political, social and methodological challenges overlap. There are considerable barriers in the development of a well-functioning measurement system such as the lack of knowledge or culture of measurement, conflicting political interest, reluctance to involve internal stakeholders, insufficiency of funding, the complexity of the brand itself or the unwillingness to show the (lack of) effectiveness of brand-related activities by local authorities. Well-functioning measurement system should be characterized by durability and simplicity, involvement of stakeholders, political realism and should take into account the specificity and needs of the particular city. Methodologically, it should comply with the high academic standards and present a holistic approach to the development of key performance indicators.



This research was financed by the, National Science Centre, Poland, research project no.
2015/19/B/HS4/00380 Towards the categorization of place brand strategy effectiveness indicators – findings from strategic documents of Polish district cities – theoretical and empirical approach.”
Christopher Pokarier. Only in Japan?: Issues in cuisine in cultural diplomacy & destination marketing
Abstract: This paper aims to explore potential tensions around gastronomy in destination branding, and culinary and cultural diplomacy, a priority area for the 2018 IPBA conference, through a study of the recent Japanese case.

In the last decade Japan’s culinary culture has come to adopt a prominent place in Japan’s state-sponsored nation branding and destination marketing endeavours. This is evidenced through the content of promotional materials, through state efforts to win international third party validation - such as through the successful application to UNESCO for recognition of ‘washoku’ (Japanese cuisine) as an intangible cultural product - and by state sponsorship of a certification regime to promote more ‘authentic’ Japanese cuisine abroad.

The paper first outlines these state initiatives and situates them in both the long history of Japanese public diplomacy and more recent governmental efforts to promote experience industries in international markets, often under the now cliched ‘Cool Japan’ rubric. It finds that public policy has been largely reactive: to media reportage of a Japanese cuisine boom abroad, to a long-established domestic political economy of domestic agricultural protectionism under new pressures, and to food ingredient enterprises sensing foreign market opportunities.

The paper then draws on the Japanese case to explore some general definitional and conceptual issues entailed in promoting distinctive and ‘authentic’ cuisines in place branding. Is a national or regional cuisine a full evolved complementary set of ingredients, flavours, techniques, and dishes that is relatively fixed and codified? Or a distinctive but dynamic ecology of culinary entrepreneurship? In either understanding, how strong are the ties to place of origin, whether by sourcing, customer savvy, or communities of practice? Or is a cuisine a methodology, or concept or ethos that could be applied to novel ingredients in varied contexts, by anybody schooled in it?

Whether a specific cuisine is understood as a share-able sensibility, or a location-bound cultural practice. impacts on whether gastronomy as a tool of cultural diplomacy is at odds with, or complementary to, destination marketing. Must one go to Japan to experience truly authentic Japanese cuisine?

The Japanese case is particularly illuminative given the nation’s heavy reliance on foreign supply chains for some its iconic foodstuffs, the dynamic syncretic nature of Japan’s food culture, the ritualisation of technique, and the formalisation of some Japanese gastronomy in a total aesthetics of the dining experience.

[full paper planned: feedback appreciated]
Alessandro De Nisco and Magdalena Florek. Political animosity effect on cognitive and affective perception of Europe and on attitudes towards the Made in EU label. A comparative study between Italy and Poland
Abstract: AIM:
Along with the principal objective of contributing to the academic literature on animosity, country image and ethnocentrism, the aim of the study is to provide a comparative point of view on the attitudes towards Made in EU label between Polish and Italian consumers.

MAIN APPROACH:
This study uses recent tensions occurring in the Euro area as the research setting and it develops and tests a comprehensive research model that investigates the effect of political animosity towards Europe on cognitive and affective image of Europe, on consumer ethnocentrism, and, importantly, on attitudes toward the “Made in Europe” label. The proposed model will be tested on a sample of Italian and Polish respondents using a PAPI survey based on a structured questionnaire.


KEY ARGUMENTS/ FINDINGS:
The current global environment is characterized by, among others, major financial crises, such as the global recession at the end of the previous decade and the more recent crisis of the Eurozone, which has engendered political and economic disputes that in turn affected the relationships between European nations and the spread of eurosceptic sentiments. The rise of nationalism seems to be one of the most visible consequences of the disputes across the Eurozone. In the last few years, many European countries have witnessed electoral gains for far-right and nationalist parties (e.g., the Front National in France, the Finns Party in Finland, the Lega Nord in Italy, the Prawo i Sprawiedliwość in Poland) that leverage the strong anti-European view of the populace. Moreover, the British referendum that has delivered a vote for leaving the EU has provided the most recent, clamorous indication that nationalism has brewed largely in reaction to the negative feeling that an increasing portion of European people have about the EU.
Effects of tensions among countries are expressed not only in the political scene, but also in trade relationships, e.g. evaluation of Made in Europe products. The academic literature in international marketing provides reliable support to the notion that foreign consumers’ anger toward a country that they perceive as hostile may affect perceptions and intention to buy products associated with it (Riefler and Diamantopoulos, 2007).

CONLUSIONS:
Findings from this study are of relevant practical interest both from an international marketing perspective – since they might affect the strategies employed for the promotion of the brand Europe – and from the point of view of public policy – since European and national governments need to understand the potential damage stemming from political or economic practices.

REFERENCES:
Riefler, P. and Diamantopoulos, A. (2007), “Consumer animosity: a literature review and a reconsideration of its measurement”, International Marketing Review, Vol. 34 No. 1, pp. 87-119.
Dr Jessica Oliver, Dr Greg Kerr and Associate Professor Rodney J Clarke. Place Identity and why it matters in Place Branding
Abstract: Aims

The aim of this presentation is to explain place identity and illustrate its role in Place Branding. A framework is introduced to differentiate between place brand constructs including a place’s image, identity, brand identity competitive identity, and heritage identity. We propose place heritage identity as an identity type. Relationships between brand constructs are explained and the need for a brand-orientation to facilitate authentic place branding strategies is demonstrated.

Main Approach

The need for authentic place brand management to encourage buy-in from stakeholders (Freire 2009; Olsson & Berglund 2009; Braun, Eshuis and Klijn 2014) underpins the framework presented. To achieve authenticity, we reinforce Baxter, Kerr and Clarke’s (2013) brand-orientation approach. A brand orientation situates identity at the foundation of a place brand. This is a bottom-up approach whereby residents’ perspectives and needs drive place brand strategy.

Drawing on the literature, we differentiate the place brand concepts, place identities (internal stakeholder perspective), place images (external stakeholder perspective), place brand identity (formal representation by place managers), place competitive identity (aspirational or existing identities to drive place strategy), and place heritage identities (internal stakeholder’s perspective concerned with history). Importantly, identities could belong to one or more identity group (place identity, brand identity, competitive identity, and/or heritage identity), they are also fluid and evolve with communication (Kerr & Oliver 2014). The relevance of heritage to place branding (Cormack 2008; Balmer 2013) is explored. Heritage identity is defined as a separate identity type (Balmer, 2011) and a source of competitive advantage (Balmer & Chen 2015).

Key findings

This presentation clarifies the role and relationship between place brand concepts. Uniquely, heritage identity is explained as one identity type within a place brand framework.

Conclusions

The proposed framework helps managers assess alignment between place brand concepts. Place brand alignment is desirable for two reasons, to facilitate stakeholder identification, and to retain residents as the focus of a place brand strategy. As both producers and consumers of a place brand, residents have an important role in strategic development (Hanna & Rowley 2010; Aitken & Campelo 2011). Ignoring residents contributes to what Kavaratzis (2012, p.10) identifies as place branding inadequacies. Through a brand-orientated approach, managers can facilitate internal stakeholder buy-in with an authentic place brand, and potentially preserve ‘place uniqueness’ for a sustainable competitive advantage. Thus, highlighting the importance and role of identity concepts in place brand strategy.



References

Aitken, R., & Campelo, A. (2011). The four R's of place branding. Journal of Marketing Management, 27, 9-10, 913-933.

Balmer, J. M. T. (2011). Corporate heritage identities, corporate heritage brands and the multiple heritage identities of the British Monarchy. European Journal of Marketing, 45(9/10), 1380–1398, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090561111151817.

Balmer, J. M. T. (2013). Corporate heritage, corporate heritage marketing, and total corporate heritage communications: What are they? What of them? Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 18(3), 290–326, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/CCIJ-05-2013-0031.


Balmer, J. M. T., & Chen, W. (2015). Corporate heritage brands in China. Consumer engagement with China’s most celebrated corporate heritage brand – Tong Ren Tang: 同仁堂. Journal of Brand Management, 22(3), 194–210, http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2015.14.


Baxter, J,. Kerr, G., & Clarke, R.J. (2013) Brand orientation and the voices from within. Journal of Marketing Management, 29 (9-10), pp.1079-1098, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2013.803145.

Braun, E, Eshuis, J and Klijn, E 2014,'The effectiveness of place brand communication', Cities, vol.41, pp.64-70.

Cormack, P. (2008). `True Stories' of Canada: Tim Hortons and the Branding of National Identity. Cultural Sociology, 2(3), 369–384, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1749975508095617.

Freire, J 2009, 'Local people: a critical dimension for place brand', Journal of Brand Management, vol.16 , no.7, pp.420-438 .
Hanna, S., & Rowley, J., (2011). Towards a strategic place brand-management model, Journal of Marketing Management, 27, (5-6), 458-476.

Kavaratzis, M. (2012). From “necessary evil” to necessity: stakeholders' involvement in place branding'. Journal of Place Management and Development, 5, (1), 7-19.

Kerr, G., & Oliver, J., (2014). Rethinking place identities. In M. Kavaratzis, G. Warnaby & G, Ashworth (Eds), Rethinking place branding: comprehensive brand development for cities and regions (pp.61-72). Springer International Publishing: Zwitzerland.

Olsson, K and Berglund, E 2009, 'City marketing: the role of the citizens', in T Nyseth and A Viken (eds.), Place Reinvention: Northern Perspectives, Ashgate, London, pp.127-144 .


Chao Liu, Minlin Deng, Yachen Qin and Fang Rao. The Impact of Brand Revitalization Strategy on Stereotype of City Image: Examples from Nanjing and Shenzhen
Abstract: City competition is increasingly intense currently, a good city brand has become an important edge that help a city to win opportunities of rapid development and the public’s mind. It is a real challenge for city governors that how to make a long-term management about the city brand, make it a vibrant and attractive, timely turn negative stereotypes to be positive. The theory of brand revitalization is widely used in the field of products, and it has an important reference value for the city brand management. It is a significant question that whether different brand revitalization strategies can make an effect on city brand.
This study was based on the brand revitalization theory and the stereotype content model. The experiment was designed to control brand revitalization strategies (awakening memories, changing the image, not activated) and city type (a historical and cultural city, a modern and technological city). The study was carried out for exploring different strategies how to affect the public’s cognition of the city’s competence and warmth in different cities. We wonder if brand revitalization strategy has a main effect and there is an interaction effect between brand revitalization strategies and city types.
Research results showed that the main effect of brand revitalization strategies was not significant, but an interaction effect between brand revitalization strategies and city types was significant. For the historical and cultural city Nanjing, changing the image compared to awakening memories and not-activation strategies could lead to a significant higher cognition about city’s competence and warmth. In terms of city affection, changing the image compared to awakening memories could bring a significant higher city preference. But compared to not-activation, the differences between groups did not reach significant level. For the modern and technological city Shenzhen, awakening memories compared to changing image, could lead to a significant higher cognition about city’s competence, warmth and city affection. However, compared with non-activation, the differences between groups did not reach significant level.
This study brings some enlightenments to the city manager .it is not a correct awareness that as long as a brand revitalization strategy is applied, it will bring about an ideal effect. City managers should fully consider the city's own characteristics, grasp the needs of the public, select the appropriate strategy and avoid the abuse of strategy. For historical and cultural cities, changing the image can make a momentous significance to promoting the public’s cognition about city’s competence, warmth and city affection, yet awakening memory may not be a wise choice. For modern and technological city, if we want to enhance the public’s cognition about city’s competence and warmth, it is suitable for apply the strategy of awakening memories, but not changing the image. In this study, we found that the effect of psychological compensation was obvious and keeping balance was more applicable in the field of city branding.
超 刘, 文欣 于, 金萍 李 and 思遥 孙. 负面事件形象修复策略对城市品牌关系质量的影响机制研究
Abstract: 在我国处于飞速发展转型期的背景下,近年许多城市发生了有损城市形象的负面事件。如何修复城市的品牌形象,恢复城市在公众心中的地位,提升城市的品牌形象,成了当下城市管理者急于解决的问题。过去基于本诺伊特的形象修复理论是从危机事件管理的角度研究,对于形象修复效果没有深入研究。本研究分析当不同类型的负面事件发生时,采用具体的形象修复策略降低负面事件对城市品牌形象影响的效果。
本研究采用了3*2的实验设计,控制品牌形象修复策略(情感性修复、纠正性修复、不修复)与负面事件类型(人为失误负面事件、管理决策层负面事件),探索在两种负面事件类型下,使用不同的品牌形象修复策略后,公众对城市的满意、信任和承诺的影响效果,检验形象修复策略的主效应以及形象修复策略同城市负面事件之间的交互效应。
研究结果显示:品牌形象修复测略主效应明显,当城市中有负面事件发生时,使用情感性修复策略和纠正性修复策略都能显著提升公众对城市品牌的满意度、信任度和承诺度,并且使用纠正性修复策略的效果会更好。对于人为失误负面事件而言,采用纠正性修复策略相比于情感性修复策略更能提升公众对城市品牌的满意度和承诺度。对于管理决策层负面事件而言,采用情感性修复策略更能提升公众对城市品牌的承诺度,但是对于城市品牌的满意度来说,使用情感性修复策略并没有使用纠正性修复策略的效果好。
本研究能够给城市管理者带来一些实际的管理对策:当一个城市中有负面事件发生时,并且影响城市的品牌形象时,管理者应当即时划分负面事件的类型,这样在后期使用的修复策略也才能更加具有针对性。
Thea Vinnicombe and Hio Kuan Kay Wong. Can hotel websites influence destination image? The case of Macau
Abstract: This paper uses a parallel group design experiment to investigate the potential of hotel websites to enhance the image of a destination. The Macau special administrative region (SAR) of mainland China is used as the case-study destination due to its wealth of five star integrated hotel casino resorts and corresponding state of the art property websites. Some of these hotel websites include extensive destination information, while others focus on individual hotel offerings. Two high quality websites at the opposing ends of these extremes were identified. Three groups of potential visitors to Macau from the same city in mainland China were selected for the experiment. Two of the three groups received the experiment treatment, that is, exposure to either the destination rich hotel website (group 1) or to the hotel focused website (group 2). The third group was used as the control. Post experiment testing for destination image perception revealed the groups exposed to the website with rich destination information had a broader and less gaming centric image of Macau relative to the other two groups. This is a pilot study only, being based on three small groups of ten from one origin market city in mainland China. Nevertheless, it demonstrates the potentially important role of one specific stakeholder group in destination image enhancement.
Elisha Woyo. Does local food experiences influence the attractiveness of Windhoek as a city brand?
Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of local food experiences on the attractiveness of Windhoek as a tourism destination brand. Thus, the study will aim to investigate the satisfaction of international tourists’ local food experiences in the empirical context of Windhoek, focusing on the city’s famous Kapana sites and traditional restaurants. The study seeks to answer the following research questions: (1) what are the factors that influences visitation to Windhoek’s Kapana sites and traditional restaurants? (2) What are the significant factors that affect the tourists’ overall experiences in Windhoek? Data were collected between the 30th of March and 31st of May 2017, by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both purposive and convenience sampling were employed in this study. Data collected will be analysed by means of descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, ANOVAs and regression analysis. Key and significant factors that influences tourists to dine at traditional restaurants and Kapana sites in Windhoek will be identified for the first time in Namibian tourism scholarship. The study will therefore contribute to existing tourism literature on food experiences and branding. Findings of this study have significant implications for Windhoek as a city brand as well as other African cities with regards to formulation of strategies that ensures quality traditional experiences are enjoyed by tourists.
Hong Fan and Kabelo Botlhe Dikobe. The Complexity in Place Branding Research and Practice
Abstract: This paper aims to explore the complexity in place branding research and practice by analyzing the notions of places and distinguishing place branding from place marketing and place promotion. The authors argue that, first of all, since the word ‘place’ embodies rich meanings and it includes country, region, city, town, village, etc., it seems impossible to conduct the research and practice of place branding by using a uniformed theory or a theoretical model. Nation/Country branding differs from the branding of other ‘places’ as the former is affected by ideology and political system of the ‘place’. Village branding differs from that of city and town, as it is comparatively smaller and its branding attributes are more focused. Secondly, branding is different from marketing. Places are dwelled with people, and they are mostly rooted with history and culture. They cannot be marketed as pure commodities. However, the uniqueness and attractiveness can be communicated to the internal and external audiences. Thirdly, the practice of place branding, in which who handles the branding process, who are the main participants, and whether the local residents are engaged in, seem to be sophisticated. The authors maintain that local residents’ voices must be heard and the branding practice will win their hearts. The authors explore how in this globalized world what dictates the practice of place branding in order to reach that final image communication to the target market. Fourthly, place branding is inseparable with communication. The selection of media and social media, events, festivals, celebrities, etc., is also complicated. This is an important area that the authors exploited in bridging the gaps of the place branding construction and cooperation (place making). In distinguishing place branding to place marketing and place promotion, the study explores the tone and intent of the message conveyed.
As repeatedly noted in the literature (e.g Skinner 2008; Warnaby 2009; Hankinson 2010), “partly as a consequence of its inherent interdisciplinary nature, place branding still lacks a clear and commonly accepted theoretical framework that would structure and guide its practical application and fill the evident gap between existing theory and practice.”

This research is based on the interviews of 26 people and a questionnaire survey of 135 people. The paper will present the major findings of the research.

Hankinson, G. (2010). Place branding: A cross-domain literature review from a marketing perspective. In: Ashworth GJ, Kavaratzis M (eds) Towards effective place brand management: branding European cities and regions. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 22-42
Skinner, H. (2008). The emergence and development of place marketing’s confused identity. J Mark Manag 24(9/10):915-928
Warnaby, G. (2009). Towards a service-dominant place marketing logic.Mark Theory 9(4):403-423
Keith Dinnie. Region brand internationalization: Gradualism, accelerated internationalization, or serial nonlinear internationalization?
Abstract: Aims

Drawing on internationalization theory from the international business and international marketing disciplines, this study investigates the internationalization patterns of region brands. Based on the study findings, future research directions are identified to enable theory development that reflects the specific characteristics of place brands (Boisen et al., 2011; Braun et al., 2013; ), which differ from the product and corporate brands upon which current internationalization theory is largely based.


Main approach

The study adopted an exploratory, qualitative approach (Birkinshaw et al., 2011; Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007) comprising a series of semi-structured interviews with key informants (Kvale and Brinkmann, 2009). Multi-site research based on twelve Dutch region brands was employed to investigate the scale and pace of region brand internationalization behaviour. The data collection was guided by the following key internationalization behavioural patterns identified in the internationalization literature as follows: gradualism (Hadjikhani et al., 2014; Johanson and Vahlne, 2009), accelerated internationalization (Chandra et al., 2012; Gabrielsson and Kirpalani, 2004; Taylor and Jack, 2013), and serial nonlinear internationalization (Vissak and Francioni, 2013; Welch and Welch, 2009).


Key arguments/findings

The dominant mode of internationalization employed by the region brands in the study was an incremental, gradualist approach. Only two of the twelve regions adopted an accelerated internationalization approach, and there was little evidence of serial nonlinear internationalization behaviour. The results suggest that psychic distance (Brewer, 2007) influences the scope and scale of region brand internationalization, and elements of psychic distance such as language and historical familiarity remain powerful even in the digital age and globalized economy.


Conclusions

The study provides empirical evidence of the internationalization behaviour of region brands and situates these behaviours in relation to existing theories of internationalization manifest in the internationalization behaviours of gradualism, accelerated internationalization, and serial nonlinear internationalization. Future research directions derived from the study’s results include the need to investigate the influence of psychic distance on region brand internationalization, the effect of shifts in governmental strategy, and the implications of the differing nature of place brands (Florek and Kavaratzis, 2014) compared to product and corporate brands.


References

Birkinshaw, J., Brannen, M.Y. and Tung, R.L. (2011), “From a distance and generalizable to up close and grounded: Reclaiming a place for qualitative methods in international business research”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 42, pp. 573-581.

Boisen, M., Terlouw, K. and van Gorp, B. (2011), “The selective nature of place branding and the layering of spatial identities”, Journal of Place Management and Development, Vol. 4 No. 2, pp. 135-47.

Braun, E., Kavaratzis, M. and Zenker, S. (2013), “My city – my brand: The different roles of residents in place branding”, Journal of Place Management and Development, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 18-28.

Brewer, P.A. (2007), “Operationalizing psychic distance: A revised approach”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 44-66.

Chandra, Y., Styles, C. and Wilkinson, I.F. (2012), “An opportunity-based view of rapid internationalization”, Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 74-102.

Eisenhardt, K.M. and Graebner, M.E. (2007), “Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 50 No. 1, pp. 25-32.

Florek, M. and Kavaratzis, M. (2014), “From brand equity to place brand equity and from there to the place brand”, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 103-107.

Gabrielsson, M. and Kirpalani, V.H.M. (2004), “Born globals: How to reach new business space rapidly”, International Business Review, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 555-571.

Hadjikhani, A., Hadjikhani, A.I. and Thilenius, P. (2014), “The internationalization process model: A proposed view of firms’ regular incremental and irregular non-incremental behaviour”, International Business Review, Vol. 23, pp. 155-168.

Johanson, J. and Vahlne, J.-E. (2009), “The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 40 No. 9, pp. 1411-1431.

Kvale, S. and Brinkmann, S. (2009), Interviews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Taylor, M. and Jack, R. (2013), “Understanding the pace, scale and pattern of firm internationalization: An extension of the born global concept”, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 31 No. 6, pp. 701-721.

Vissak, T. and Francioni, B. (2013), “Serial nonlinear internationalization in practice: A case study”, International Business Review, Vol. 22, pp. 951-62.

Welch, C.L. and Welch, L.S. (2009), “Re-internationalisation: Exploration and conceptualisation”, International Business Review, Vol. 18 No. 6, pp. 567-577.

Hikmah Nurul Qamar and Nurul Ilmi Sudirman. “See the On Who Death A Few Years Ago Change Their Clothes” The Unique Tourism Destination in the East of Indonesia
Abstract: Abstract— There are various traditions of death, one of them comes from Tana Toraja, a Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ma'nene is a tradition of cleansing the corpses of the ancestors and parading the corpses around the village. This ceremony holds in August after the harvest. The corpses of the ancestors were removed from the chests placed in the tomb of Patane, a cemetery that had various models, such as a small house located in the mountains. Then, the body of the corpse is cleaned using a brush or cloth. Before being put back into the crate, the corpse clothes are replaced with new clothes and accompanied by ma'badong dances, a dance with a circle and holding each other's hands, mostly dancers wearing black clothes. The ceremony is also coupled with slaughtering buffalo and pigs to be eaten during the ceremony. Ma'nene is a series in the death ceremony rambu solo. This paper aims to show a unique tradition or culture in a sacred death ceremony and still preserved by the Tana Toraja community. This paper uses a descriptive qualitative approach. With this research, it is expected to increase the attractiveness of the tourists to see the different cultures directly, one of the Ma'nene traditions conducted by the Tana Toraja community.
Catia Rebelo. Collaborative visual narratives as a place-based, inclusive and transformative approach
Abstract: In the last couple of decades, Place branding initiatives and strategies have been centred on discourses of competitiveness between countries and regions in regards to attract investments, businesses, visitors and residents (Morgan, et al., 2011). This focus on competiveness and market drive resulted in quick-fix initiatives, (Karavatzis, Giovanardi & Lichrou, 2017) which, therefore, failed to address the geographical and socio-political contexts that define places. A growing number of critiques is pointing towards the “placelessness” (Gale, Bosak, & Caplins, 2013) of such approaches as well as the disregard of local communities needs and views (Ahn, Hym & Kim, 2015). Indeed, Karavatzis, Giovanardi and Lichrou (2017) reinforce these critiques stating that place branding strategies cannot continue to overlook the need for more responsible and socially sensitive approaches, which acknowledge the importance of resident participation in decision-making. Therefore, aiming to contribute with novel and critical view over place branding, this paper purposes a new framework that is place-based, inclusive and transformative. At the same time, it stimulates local communities’ support, engagement and empowerment by giving these communities the opportunity to influence, be part of the process, and communicate their perspectives via their own stories and place values (visual narratives). To test the framework, a collaborative multi-actor case study was applied in two different geographical and social contexts. The first case study was developed in a rather small and deprived village in a rural area in the interior of Portugal, whereas the second case study was applied in a more affluent area which is part of a National Park, therefore, more touristically developed. The groups with whom we collaborated also differ in formation, in the Portuguese case the people were gathered specifically for the research intervention, while in Wales the group already existed, being established to promote tourism around the area. Both groups collaboratively worked with the researcher to create insightful narratives on the human-nature relationships that were converted into two documentaries. Bearing in mind the importance of geographical and sociological contextualization in a place-based approach, some reflections on the discourses provided by the two communities will be drawn. It intends to highlight the main commonalities and differences regarding what is valued by these communities in their respective place. It intends equally to reveal how the process of involvement and cooperation was developed as well as how the ownership and power over the visual narratives (documentary) was undertaken by the communities.

References:
Morgan, N., Pritchard, A., Pride, R. and Morgan, N. (2011). Destination brands. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Karavatzis, M. (Ed.), Giovanardi, M. (Ed.), Lichrou, M. (Ed.). (2018). Inclusive Place Branding. London: Routledge.
Gale, T., Bosak, K., & Caplins, L. (2013). Moving beyond tourists’ concepts of authenticity: place-based tourism differentiation within rural zones of Chilean Patagonia. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 11(4), 264-286.
Ahn, Y., Hyun, S. S., & Kim, I. (2015). City Residents’ Perception of MICE City Brand Orientation and Their Brand Citizenship Behavior: A Case Study of Busan, South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(3), 328–353. http://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2015.1050422.
Tatiana Polyakova. Place branding for small places and surrounding areas: interdependence of time and place brands
Abstract: Due to global processes in international economies, territorial competition between places has all over the world increased (Baker, 2012). It has resulted in searching for marketing instruments and solutions and influenced the development of place marketing and place branding techniques. A large number of regions implement place branding strategies in order to attract people or businesses to the place or to prevent migration out of regions (Mikulcak et al, 2015). Today, literature links place marketing and place branding. In many research the definition and terms of place branding is studied with the emphasis on the capacity of the brand to be differentiated and creating and promoting an external image aimed at attracting tourists, investors and creative people (Kavaratzis, 2005). Place brand is considered as a “network of associations” and the process of place branding formation is seen as the interaction between associations connected with places in people’s minds, that are based on materiality, practices, institutions and representations (Kavaratzis and Kalandides, 2015).
Even though place branding is a widely studied and implemented approach, there is very little information and research on place branding at a small, local scale, especially for small cities and surrounding or rural areas, where large budgets are not available and which suffer from the outflow of young and skilled citizens (The Place Brand Observer, 2017). Consequently, all the places are different, and branding process and its implementation substantially depend on local conditions, (Kavaratzis, 2008) that implies a range of specific issues for branding small cities and surrounding or rural areas. Moreover, rural economies are usually cyclical, so supply and demand there depends on a season or time of a year.
In place branding literature some emphasis is put on analyzing attributes of places as a core element of place branding (Kavaratzis, 2015). However, very little attention is paid to the concept of time and time-related issues. Thus, there is a research gap in studying place brand as a time-related concept. Therefore, there is a question, how concepts of time and place are interconnected in place branding theory and applied into practice. The academic context provides the research questions. The central overarching question of the PhD research will be identifying the specificity of place branding for small cities and rural areas in connection with the concept of time – “What is the role of time in place branding for small places and surrounding areas”.
Thus, this study aims at investigating the two gaps in the literature mentioned above (i.e. branding for small places and the relationship between time and branding). To answer the research questions, a series of cases will be studied in Russia and two European countries using preferably the methods based on the interpretative paradigm of social sciences. A series of interviews will be conducted with main places’ stakeholders. The results will be compared with the outcomes of observations and secondary data analysis.
References
Baker, B. (2012) Destination Branding for Small Cities: The Essentials for Successful Place Branding. 2nd edn. USA: Creative Leap Book.
Kavaratzis, M. (2005). Place branding: a review of trends and conceptual models. The Marketing Review, Volume 5, pp. 329-342.
Kavaratzis, M. (2008). From city marketing to city branding: An interdisciplinary analysis with reference to Amsterdam, Budapest and Athens. [www Document] Available at: http://www.narcis.nl/publication/RecordID/oai:pure.rug.nl:publications%2F35ea492b-652c-403e-8aac-0f7909419f41.
Kavaratzis, M. and Kalandides, A. (2015) Rethinking the place brand: the interactive formation of place brands and the role of participatory place branding, Environment and Planning A, 47(6), pp. 1368-1382.
Mikulcak, F., Haider, J.L., Abson, D.J., Newig, J. and Fischer, J. (eds.) (2015) Applying a capitals approach to understand rural development traps: A case study from post-socialist Romania.
The Place Brand Observer. 5 Place Branding Topics for Researchers to Explore in 2017 [www Document]. Available at: http://placebrandobserver.com/five-place-branding-topics-to-explore-2017/.
Tatiana Polyakova, Mihalis Kavaratzis and Mike Saren. Place branding in the Russian context
Abstract: Place branding in Russian towns and cities has become a popular approach to regional development since the 2000s (Britvin et al, 2016). One of the features that characterises regional development in the country, is the highly polarised economic structure. Due to global processes, large Russian cities attract several resources and different types of capital, whereas places of a smaller scale have to survive in the competitive environment suffering from a series of severe problems such as high emigration, demographic problems and social unrest. However, big cities also face intense competition as they act as leading actors at the global arena competing as centres of innovation, finance and main tourism destinations as well. To succeed in these competitive games, Russian places have applied contemporary place branding instruments and approaches to their development strategies. Almost every 10th town or city in the country has tried to maintain a branding campaign in different ways. However, many of the attempts have failed due to different reasons (Dubeykovsky, 2015).
The aim of this paper is to analyse the most significant Russian place branding practices in order to identify the common ways in which place branding is conceptualised in Russia and reveal the most relevant theoretical approaches adopted. Another aim of the paper is to identify and critically rethink the main gaps and faults in place branding campaigns assessing the extent to which the major place branding principles were misunderstood or even neglected.
The paper describes various cases of place branding practices in Russia including branding major tourism destinations, place branding for former industrial cities, place branding for small places and rural areas and events connected with place branding. This critical analysis is mirrored by the theoretical approaches in the field allowing conclusions to be drawn about place branding implementation in the Russian context.

References
Britvin, A.M., Britvina, I.B., Starostina, L.E. The integrative model of a brand for a Russian city: the regional approach (2016) [www document] Available at: http://elar.urfu.ru/bitstream/10995/44104/1/978-5-7996-1975-6_2016.pdf.
Dubeykovsky, V. Place branding: the trends 2014-2015. Main problems and tendencies of the industry development in Russia (2015) [www document] Available at: http://www.sostav.ru/publication/brending-territorij-trendy-2014-2015-14265.html.
Cecilia Cassinger, Andrea Lucarelli and Szilvia Gyimothy. Place Branding: A Nordic Perspective
Abstract: This paper examines the Nordic as an ideological, cultural, and geographical site from which to examine place branding. Although a number of studies have addressed Nordic place brands and branding, the peculiarity of branding within the Nordic welfare states remains understudied (Cassinger et al., forthcoming). The unusual open access to the field of practice granted to researchers (at least compared to Anglo-Saxon and European standard), and the particular political, institutional, cultural environment of the Nordic has not fully been unpacked. The limited scope of previous studies on place branding paired with a widespread international interest for the “Nordic” as both a geographical place, moral orientation, and (normative) discourse calls for more research into the global relevance of Nordic place branding. The Nordic is thus not confined to a region, but is approached as an idea that travels across the world.

The literature on Nordic place branding is emergent and deals with disparate themes such as conceptual issues (Andersson, 2014; Niedomysl & Jonasson, 2012), nation branding (Ren & Gyimóthy, 2013; Cassinger et al. 2016), regional branding (Syssner, 2009; Wæraas et al., 2015), and city branding (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011). The present study offers a focused reading across different approaches and empirical fields in order to explore the peculiarity of Nordic place branding. The Nordic is here addressed as an ideological orientation, a cultural construct, and an empirical context from which to explore place branding practices and theories. In particular, the Nordic research tradition is argued to be suited to push critical, but hence far not sufficiently explored, issues in place branding, such as feminism, bio-ethics, sustainability, and social justice. It is further suggested that from a Nordic perspective place branding is characterised by processes of depoliticization, consensus, collaboration, and transparency. These peculiarities may be used for building theories and developing methods, which can be extended to the Anglo-Saxon and European field of research and practice.

References

Andersson, I. (2014). Placing place branding: an analysis of an emerging research field in
human geography. Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography, 114 (2), 143-155.
Cassinger, C., Merkelsen, H., Eksell, J., & Rasmussen, R. K. (2016). Translating public
diplomacy and nation branding in Scandinavia: An institutional approach to the cartoon crises. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 12(2-3), 172-186.
Cassinger, C. Lucarelli, A. & Gyimóthy, S. (forthcoming) (eds.) The Nordic Wave of Place
Branding. Edward Elgar.
Lucarelli, A., & Olof Berg, P. (2011). City branding: a state-of-the-art review of the research
domain. Journal of Place Management and Development, 4(1), 9-27.
Niedomysl, T., & Jonasson, M. (2012). Towards a theory of place marketing. Journal of Place
Management and Development, 5(3), 223-230.
Ren, C., & Gyimóthy, S. (2013). Transforming and contesting nation branding strategies:
Denmark at the Expo 2010. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 9(1), 17-29.
Syssner, J. (2009). Conceptualizations of culture and identity in regional policy. Regional &
federal studies, 19(3), 437-458.
Wæraas, A., Bjørnå, H., & Moldenæs, T. (2015). Place, organization, democracy: Three
strategies for municipal branding. Public Management Review, 17(9), 1282-1304.
Maja Jovic. Corruption and violence against architecture as an ‘organic’ place brand in post-conflict settings
Abstract: Heritage sites and urban benchmarks convey a mythical discourse or the signs of nationhood to domestic and international visitors and contribute to a sense of national identity and belonging. Communal and shared narratives are created by the selective recollection of past events and place identity takes shape when similar perceptions are shared across a community. These emerge out of the framing as specific sites, buildings or monuments as integral to the successful management of a city brand and a coherent identity. However, the problems arise when thinking about which buildings and narratives get selected and which overlooked. Further problems arise when the vision of a future project – or strategic branding initiative for that matter - is in conflict with the residents’ associations of a place.

This paper will argue that, in a fragile state where the ‘post’ in ‘post-conflict’ is still highly debatable, the everyday and institutionalised violence and corruption tell a proportionally bigger story about a place than its architecture. The decisions behind strategic branding initiatives and the way narratives around heritage buildings are constructed become an ‘organic’ brand of a city already struggling to position itself back on a map – violence takes center stage, with heritage on the side.

To do so, the paper will look at transitional countries of Southeast Europe, choosing particular projects in Serbia and Croatia to illustrate these points. These large investments in the built environment ‘use’ history, either in a way that attempts to produce historical continuity or break away from the past deemed problematic, but do so by undemocratic means with little to no participation from the public. In a post-conflict environment, this is particularly complex, as these sites remain contested and associated with painful or celebrated memories. The paper is anchored by four different fields: conflict, tourism, marketing and architecture. The primary research was conducted through interviews with key experts in these four fields, as well as a Critical Discourse Analysis of relevant policies and published media. The paper will argue that the violence employed in (re)creation of these sites leads to a creation of a new cultural narrative – the one where violence becomes embedded in the city’s brand.
Stephen Poon. Experiencing Critical Regionalism as Cultural Heritage Expressions in Tropical Urbanism: Reimagining the Place and Placelessness in Hospitality Design
Abstract: Critical regionalism, architectural vernacularism, place and placelessness are concepts that have major influences on hospitality architecture design in Southeast Asia. In the past three decades, the success or failure of commercial travel for developing economies of Asia had been subject to global intellectual discourse. Many critics question how effectively architects capture the nuances of authentic native cultures and project conscious identities of specific regional communities. The debates are not surprising, since the commercialisation of heritage and culture is tied directly to the marketing and brand image of hotels and resorts and affects mass tourism essential in growing revenue in the travel economy. The issue of place becomes challenging for architects since the audience’s attitudinal response towards what symbolises heritage is not always founded on pure environmental experiences but taught, developed, mediated and constructed by others. This paper seeks to understand the specific issues faced by tropical architectural design and how they negotiate regionalist concepts with attitudinal responses. The aim is to examine in depth the principles of place and placelessness in a critical study of regionalism in tropical architecture. Case study research on the works of the two practicing Asian architects, Twitee Teparkum and Geoffrey Bawa are studied in terms of modernist influences in their hospitality designs. Key finding shows that contemporary architects working in fast-urbanising regions of Asia demonstrate strong commitment to promote regionalism in their work through symbolic reworking of native locality but have tendency to deliver “short-circuit” fusion of Westernised inspirations borrowing from traditional heritage forms, combining with contemporary pragmatics. In spatial design and landscaping approaches for functionality and aesthetics, the analysis found similarities between Teparkum and Bawa, although their works show interpretive variations based on geographic dissimilarities. This suggests that conceptual designs of hospitality architectures aim to create a response that is closer to placelessness, as they are sited within the complex dynamics of modernity, sustainability, temporality and heritage. Hospitality designs have secular, economic, socio-political overlays, and no one perspective can fully capture nor reflect cultural heritage expressions of tropical regionalism. Conclusively, this research argues that due to increasingly urbanist forms of presenting exotic cultures in this century, contemporary architects working on hospitality architecture and landscapes must work with full consciousness of what place branding entails, what heritage symbolism and cultural images mean for natives, and in the long run, must deign to be careful of interpreting hospitality architecture as a form of social elitism.
Andreas Zins, Arno Scharl and Astrid Dickinger. Monitoring changes of destination image representations through mega sports events
Abstract: please, see attachment
Siao Fui Wong and Balvinder Kaur Kler. Malaysian Borneo: Location Branding at its Best
Abstract: Aims
In the digital era, online destination image (ODI) is a vital component of a tourism destination brand. Brand name conjures distinctiveness and is guided by the process of destination branding. However, branding is no longer under the purview of official destination marketers. This paper aims to explore blogger induced branding based on user-generated content for Malaysian Borneo.

Main approach
Qualitative content analysis was used to explore a purposive sample of 25 blogs written in English about Malaysian Borneo. Both Sabah and Sarawak, two separate destinations on one island utilise ‘Borneo’ in their branding. This paper scrutinised the ODI produced by bloggers to understand the image formation process for two destinations located in one geographical location.

Key arguments
Beyond official DMOs, other stakeholders should play a role in the destination branding process (Pike, 2005; Wheeler, 2007). Tourist experiences should be incorporated into the destination branding formation process (Blain, Levy, and Ritchie, 2005). Why? Because brand promise and experiences are acquired on site by the tourists themselves (Pike, 2005; Govers and Go, 2009). Yet, the role played by tourists in the branding process remained understudied. However, a decade later, bloggers are accepted as image formation agents (Tseng et al, 2015).

Findings
Three key themes were extracted from blog content: nature, adventure and culture. This ODI for Malaysian Borneo projected by bloggers is comparable to components of geography, namely the physical (where is it), human (who lives here), and human-environment (what is it like). Bloggers’ perceived image promotes an understanding of ‘why does place exist this way’. This insight into the image formation process identifies a missing link in the current process, that of location. Bloggers connect their experiences to the geographical attributes of the location. Therefore, findings suggest bloggers create location awareness due to the use of geography and engage with location branding. This contributes to an understanding of the geographical dimension of branding, deemed insufficient in the past (Pike, 2009; Pike, 2011).

Conclusions
Within the tourism domain, location branding remains understudied even as place branding theory advances. Although findings are contextual and limited to Malaysian Borneo, this paper suggests blogger induced branding is flourishing. Their mode of branding is based on place experiences which in turn are embedded to the geographical attributes of a location. Inadvertently, what has occurred is location branding, an avenue worthy of future work.
Qiyan Zhang and Ling Mu. An Analysis of the Relationship Tendency Between Contemporary Chinese Cultural Creativity Development and City Brand Image
Abstract: Along with the increasing pace of China’s urbanization and globalization, Chinese cultural creativity industry and subsidiary industries will embrace a high-speed development era in the next decade. As a key channel to improve city brand image, cultural creativity is highly valued by China’s city planning and construction bureaus. For cultural creativity itself, due to its aesthetic attributes and representation ways, it has to rely on physical space, tangible arts or textual media to connect with real life space. As a result, cultural creativity is inevitably involved with city physical space, and city image and city brand. Therefore, it is necessary for China’s city planning and construction bureaus to plan ahead and implant cultural creativity to urban landscape, which offers a solution to the conspicuous problem of China’s contemporary cities—“Different cities bear the same landscapes”. This study will offer illustration on the relationship between China’s contemporary city brand image problems and cultural creativity, drawing experiences and lessons from up-to-date real-life city branding cases.
Yanping Liu. Reconsideration of the Positioning of Macao's City Brand: Based on the Perspective of the Strategy of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area
Abstract: This paper starts from the reality of the development of Macao and the Greater Pearl River Delta in recent years. In the context of the established vision of World City of Tourism & Leisure in Macau and the strategic planning of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau Bay Area, this paper revisited the progress and inadequacies of Macao in the journey to World Tourism and Leisure Center.

This paper believes that the construction of a world tourism and leisure center is usually supported by a metropolitan area as a hinterland. Its tourism and leisure industry is not only the fundamental driving force for the overall development of the local socio-economic environment, but also can radiate into a wider metropolitan area and promote the regional industrial structure, infrastructure, thus to promote the sustainable development of the regional economy.

Based on the strategic planning background of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area, this paper examines the six major urban functions related to the vision of building a world tourism and leisure center, ie, brand leadership, industry agglomeration, comprehensive services, innovative demonstration, driving by radiation, and inclusive development.

In addition, this paper also employs the detailed analysis of the CBDI( city branding development index) of 11 cities in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area to measure the pros and cons of Macao's city brand.

Based on qualitative and quantitative analysis, this paper proposes the following strategic recommendations for the strategic city brand positioning of Macau in the map of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area. That is, the functional integration strategy, the cultural foundation strategy, the industry integration strategy, the smart growth strategy, the service first strategy and the brand driving strategy. Through the urban image optimization and city branding/ marketing, the important role of Macao in building a world tourism and leisure center will be effectively promoted.
Ying Jen Pan, Felicitas Evangelista and Lancy Mac. Value Dimensions of a GPT: An Empirical Study of Outbound Tourists in Taiwan
Abstract: The growth in the demand for group package tours in Asia has been significant in recent years. This study developed and tested a framework to identify the value dimensions of a group package tour (GPT) and to determine their effects on satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Using structural equation modelling on survey data collected from 561 GPT travellers in Taiwan, the results show that the overall perceived value of a GPT is reflected in five dimensions namely, functional value, functional product quality, functional service, emotional value and social value. Overall perceived value is found to have a positive effect on satisfaction which in turn has an influence on repurchase and recommending behaviour with implications not just on a specific GPT “brand” but also on the GPT product category as a whole.
Ling Mu and Qiyan Zhang. A Study on the Relationship of City Self-media and City Branding—Using City WeChat Public Accounts as Examples
Abstract: Starting from 2017, city WeChat public account begins to appear as an important communication method in China’s city brand marketing practice. These self-media are devoted to unveiling and communicating city culture that covers topics of city life, cuisine, civil life, tourism, women, etc., and changes the city marketing climate which centered on traditional mainstream media. This essay focuses on China’s city self-media using the examples of five city WeChat public accounts. By studying on the strategy, communication effects and the inadequacies, of the five city WeChat public accounts, this essay explores the methods of improving city marketing effects through city self-media by proposing marketing strategies in four different dimensions: the positioning dimension—by personalizing the city WeChat public accounts, the distance of city self-media and city stakeholders is shortened; the content dimension—tell stories of commoners and use narrative of up-to-date popular culture; the audience dimension—make the transition from online “stream users” to “super users” possible; the media dimension—merge the online and offline activities. In summary, this study attempts to explore the theoretical and practical values of city WeChat public accounts on city brand marketing on the textual and data illustration levels.
Jakub Gazda. The wine sector in marketing communication of Polish regions
Abstract: AIM:

The aim of this paper is to present and analyze the new way of the communication of local brands for the Polish regions; through wine products and wine culture. The production and popularity of wine in Poland have been growing dynamically in the last years; they are used now for marketing purposes by the regions where the wine production is located.

MAIN APPROACH:

Discussion is based on the content analysis of marketing strategies along with the actual communication of selected Polish regions as well as statistical analysis of secondary data.


FINDINGS/KEY ARGUMENTS:
The change of alcohol consumption in Poland has led to an increase of the wine share in general alcohol consumption in Poland. It resulted not only in a significant increase in import, but also in the organic development of local producers. At this moment in Poland there are around 200 vineyards in operation which deliver wine to the market. They are also pioneers in wine culture, which became the center of attention of regional marketers. The regions which produce wine started to invest in the development of this industry seeking out the crucial element which could distinguish their brands from the rest. Some of them consciously started to include it in their marketing communication strategies, e.g. organizing regional events, competitions for local producers; enhancing the image of their region in the marketing message.

CONLUSIONS:

It can be concluded that the wine production in Poland finds itself in the experimental phase. However, these regions that quickly noticed the dormant potential of wine culture, are already associated with this sector (e.g. Lubuskie region) and they use these associations to strengthen the identity of their regional brands.

This research is a part of Erasmus + FOODBIZ Project: University and business learning for new employability paths in food and gastronomy, 2017-1-IT02-KA203-036782
Alkmini Gkritzali, Eleni Mavragani and Dimitris Gritzalis. Negative MWOM and value co-destruction for destinations
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of microblogging word of mouth (MWOM) through Twitter on value co-destruction for destinations facing sustained crises. The paper’s main aim is to explore the role of online communities in value co-destruction – as both an individual and interactive concept – in order to contribute to current literature, which has mostly focused on how social media enable value co-creation in tourism. Using the case of the Greek capital, Athens, we explore the extent to which Twitter influencers, such as travel bloggers and news broadcasters, can, accidentally or intentionally, act as value co-destroyers (Ple & Chumpitaz Caceres, 2010) for the destination under study. We argue that, as major influencers, lifestyle accounts and news broadcasters disseminate negative narratives about the destination which, when shared with their followers, can lead to significant value co-destruction within the online community. Acknowledging the argument that consumers are more influenced by negative WOM and MWOM (Chakravarty et al., 2010; Hennig-Thurau et al., 2015), we aim to identify how lifestyle accounts and news broadcasters on Twitter contribute to value co-destruction for destinations in sustained crises as a result of the crisis they are communicating and, that way, amplifying the crisis itself and contributing to the decline of the destination well-being.
We explore the case of Athens as a city destination facing a sustained financial crisis. Our analysis focuses on three years from 2013 to 2015, which have been the most eventful years of the Greek financial crisis so far (Gkritzali et al., 2017; Gkritzali, 2017). During this period, we look at the top five Twitter influencers, according to their klout scores, that are sharing stories about Athens (using the hashtag #Athens) and are a mix of news broadcasters and lifestyle accounts. We use the method of sentiment analysis to capture the attitude and prevailing emotion of the influencers (Dickinger, Költringer, & Körbitz, 2011; Godnov & Redek, 2016; Gkritzali, 2017) throughout the years after study. In addition, we map the journey of the online narratives about Athens that are produced and disseminated by the Twitter influencers, through various retweets and retweeting accounts. This way, we capture the shared online value formation process between Twitter users, who are a mix of stakeholders, such as influencers, residents and visitors. Viewing online value formation as a collective process, we do not focus on individual differences, but rather explore the direction of value formation (co-creation or co-destruction) as well as the volume of online sharing throughout the three years that lie in the heart of the Greek financial crisis.
Jiawei Wang and Yu Chen. Media Representation of the Regional Image of Shaanxi Province in China’s Mainstream Media in the One Belt One Road Context
Abstract: As the starting point of the ancient silk road,Shaanxi province is the important pivot of China’s One Belt One Road initiative. The local government attaches great importance to the construction of the regional image of Shaanxi province. There are three kinds of regional image presentation, entity image, media image and the cognitive image. The media image is critical to understand the external world. Media plays an important role in the shaping process of regional brand image. In China, a large number of the news media belong to the “mouthpiece of the party”, the regional image built up by the mainstream media is clearly distinguished from the image represented by the media which dominated by the market.
This paper is based on the news report on Shaanxi province by China’s three mainstream media, People's Daily, Guangming Daily and China Youth Daily,which are the three most representative national newspapers published in China. The objective of this paper is to analyze the regional image of Shaanxi Province in Chinese mainstream media in the One Belt One Road context (2013-2018) via the content analysis methods. Through the analysis of the number of reports, the source of news, the topic of the report and the subject of the report, this paper try to confirm the relationship between the formation of media image of regional brand and the political and economic system, the social tradition and the media system.This paper also suggests that the governance and news dissemination of the regional media image is equally important, and that the formation of the regional brand should focus on refining core functions and core values to obtain a positive and healthy regional media image.
Cecilia Cassinger, Jorgen Eksell, Maria Mansson and Ola Thufvesson. Mediatization of terror attacks and city brand image: A study of the Stockholm attack and the ’Last Night in Sweden’ event
Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increased interest for how perceptions and experiences of fear influence the image of the city. Perceptions of security and safety of places are central to place branding (Coaffee and Van Ham, 2008). Previous research demonstrates that fear and insecurity are largely socially constructed and amplified by mass media (Avraham and Ketter, 2008) and social media (Doosti et al., 2016; Jansson, 2018). The realm of media has become more complex in an era characterised as posttruth in which ”objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief” (Oxford Dictionaries, 2016).

The research aim in this paper is to advance the knowledge of the mechanisms of
how terror in the tourism city is mediatised. To this end, the paper analyses two instances of terror in two Swedish cities as media events (Couldry and Hepp, 2018). The first instance concern the deadly terror attack in Stockholm in 2017, whereas the second instance refer to Donald Trump’s statement of a non-existing terror attack in Malmo. Lefebvre’s (2004) rythmanalysis approach is adopted to investigate rhythms of the media events on Twitter and online news platforms and their consequences for city brand image.

The study suggests that the mediatisation of the non-existing media event had greater impact on city image than the deadly one. At the time of the event, Malmo city suffered from a negative image, which made the city vulnerable to extremist and populist narratives. The celebrity status of Trump and circulation of fake news also created much publicity and attention. The fact that no one knew what had happened open up a space in which speculation and conspiracy fantasies could grow. Real and imaginary elements were woven together in an almost phantasmal way. By contrast, in the Stockholm attack there was no ambiguity with regards to the event.

References

Avraham, E. and Ketter, E. (2008), Will we be safe there? Analysing strategies for altering
unsafe place images. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 4 No. 3, pp. 196-204.

Coaffee, J., and Van Ham, P. (2008), ”‘Security branding’: The role of security in marketing the city, region or state”, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 4 No. 3, pp. 191-195.

Couldry, N. and Hepp, A. (2018), “The continuing lure of the mediated centre in times of deep mediatization: Media Events and its enduring legacy”, Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 114–117.

Doosti, S., Jalilvand, M. R., Asadi, A., Pool, J. K. and Adl, P. M. (2016), “Analyzing the influence of electronic word of mouth on visit intention: the mediating role of tourists’ attitude and city image”, International Journal of Tourism Cities, Vol. 2 No 2, pp.137-148.

Jansson, A. (2018), Rethinking post-tourism in the age of social media. Annals of Tourism, Vol 69, pp. 101-110.

Lefebvre, H. (2004), Rhythmanalysis: Space, Time and Everyday Life. Continuum, New York.
Oxford Dictionaries (2016). Accessed 2018-02-17 via https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/word-of-the-year.












Rachel Luna Peralta. Vlogging and Place Branding: How Non-Filipino Travel Vloggers Promote the Philippines
Abstract: This presentation aims to critically examine the use and potential of video blogs or vlogs shared on Facebook for place branding. In particular, it will analyze the travel vlogs of popular non-Filipino travel vloggers - Lost LeBlanc, BecomingFilipino, Nas Daily, and Drew Binsky - and how these vlogs promote the Philippines as a destination. The data were gathered through a qualitative content and narrative analysis of the user-generated videos posted on the travel vloggers’ Facebook accounts. Content and visual analysis of the videos as well as viewer responses support the arguments that travel vloggers and their respective vlogs play a key role in creating an online destination image of a place. Stories and images in vlogs vividly create destination images, which are necessary and fundamental for place branding. Travel vlogs are representations of destination experiences, from which public and private tourism agencies can use in their promotional/marketing agenda.




References


Fong, Y. L., Firz, D., & Sulaiman, W. I. W. (2017). The Impact of Tourism Advertisement Promotional
Videos on Young Adults. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 12(3), 007.

Kim, J. & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2017). Sharing Tourism Experiences: The Posttrip Experience. Journal of
Travel Research, 56(1), 28-40. Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0047287515620491. Accessed on 04 May 2018.

McQuail, D. (2010). McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory, 6th Ed. London: Sage Pblications

Pan, B., MacLaurin, T., & Crotts, J.C. (2007). Travel Blogs and Implications on Destination Marketing.
Journal of Travel Research, 46, 35-45, Available at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0047287507302378. Accessed on 04 May 2018.

Pace, Stefano (2008). “YouTube: An Opportunity for Consumer Narrative Analysis?”
Qualitative Market Research, 11(2): 213-226.

Tussyadiah, I. & Fesenmaier, D.R. (2009). “Mediating Tourist Experiences: Access to Places via Shared
Videos.” Annals of Tourism Research, 36(1): 24-40. Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222281020_Mediating_Tourist_Experiences_Access_to_Places_via_Shared_Videos. Accessed on 03 May 2018.





Adam Johns. Made in Japan or Made in Kyoto? Branding with place in Kyoto’s traditional crafts
Abstract: Despite often having been ignored in place branding and country of origin studies (Dinnie, 2004), cultural products are both contributors and beneficiaries of a city’s, region’s, or nation’s place brand. Thus, traditional or heritage craft industries provide an ideal opportunity to examine the interplay of place branding efforts and the use of place brands by local firms in their marketing activities. Yet as craft producers seek to develop contemporary products for global markets to ensure their survival, to what extent do producers in different regions exploit cultural heritage and corresponding place brands in order to develop and communicate a coherent value proposition?

This paper is part of a comparative study of regional place brands in Japan that examines how local producers utilise corporate, region, or nation brand in their marketing efforts. Focusing on one of the strongest regional brands of Kyoto (Brand Research Institute, 2017), it seeks to examine how firms that benefit from a strong regional brand make use of the brand. The distinction between identity and image (cf. Pike 2002, Roll 2006) of both producer and place brand is likely to grow (in line with the 3-gap model presented in Govers and Go, 2009) as these products are extended, adapted or reinvented (Keegan, 1993) for overseas markets.

To address this issue a series of questions are proposed. First, what is the Kyoto brand, its place identity and projected image? Secondly, what are the different product and branding elements that producers use in their ’traditional’ product offerings? These elements include product attributes, sourcing and production location elements based on a partitioned [place] of origin framework (cf. Chao 1993, 1998, Thakor 1996), and communication elements. Thirdly, given the deeply culturally embedded nature of these products (cf. Douglas, Craig, and Nijssen, 2001), do producers adapt the above elements to either minimise or accentuate aspects of the regional identity, and/or adapt branding efforts to exploit regional or national brand?

This paper examines multiple cases of iconic Japanese and Kyoto crafts of Kyo-yaki (Kyoto-ware) ceramics and Kyo-shikki (Kyoto lacquerware). Semi-structured interviews with owner/managers are complemented with secondary data, analysis of corporate communications, and observations of trade shows. A comparison with other regional brand highlights different strategies for use of corporate, regional, and nation brand.

Findings indicate that place incongruence on the production side actually coheres with traditional practices and that use of the local brand becomes more nuanced in international markets.

References
Chao, P. (1993), “Partitioning country-of-origin effects: Consumer evaluations of a hybrid product”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 24 No. 2, pp. 291-306.
Chao, P. (1998), “Impact of country-of-origin dimensions on product quality and design quality perceptions”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 1-6.
Dinnie, K. (2004). Place branding: Overview of an emerging literature. Place Branding, 1(1), 106–110.
Douglas, S.P; Craig, C.S. & Nijssen, E.J. (2001) “Integrating Branding Strategy Across Markets: Building International Brand Architecture”. Journal of International Marketing: Summer 2001, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 97-114.
Govers, R. & Go, F. (2009) Place Branding: Glocal, Virtual and Physical Identities, Constructed, Imagined and Experienced. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Keegan, Warren J. (1995). Multinational marketing management (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Pike, S. (2002) “Destination image analysis: a review of 142 papers from 1973-2000” Tourism Management 23(5):541-549
Roll, M. (2006) Asian Brand Strategy: How Asia builds strong brands. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Dian Wang. City image advertising in China: A review of the Chinese-language literature
Abstract: City image advertising is one of the most frequent means employed by the Chinese government in order to cope with the increasing competition among cities. Despite the extensive scholarly discussion on city image advertising in China as a city branding communication/a city marketing mix tool, existing studies have dedicated limited attention to city image advertising. Moreover, considering the fact that the most prestigious international journals are written in English, and most Chinese scholars in this research field publish in Chinese-language, international academia has limited access to current knowledge on city image advertising in China. Hence, a review of the published academic works in Chinese language about city image advertising in China is necessary.

This paper critically reviews studies published in mainland China on the topic of city image advertising from 2006 to 2018. Firstly, this paper presents a quantitative content analysis on existing publications in order to identify the main features, such as the over-time distribution of publications, types of topics, research methods, etc. Secondly, this paper qualitatively examines current knowledge about city image advertising in China. Lastly, it summaries and evaluates the current status of and challenges to Chinese-language studies on city image advertising in China, and suggests some directions for future research.

By analysing the Chinese-language literature on city image advertising in China, this paper contributes to a better understanding of the phenomenon in China, which remains marginal and in need further academic attention at international level.
Magsud Mammadov. Multi-Branding of Nation: Azerbaijan, The European Charm of the Orient
Abstract: Abstract:
This paper attempts to analyse the ways in which Azerbaijan has utilised international sport, cultural and political events to create a multifaceted nation brand for different purposes (namely political and economic). The government’s strategy has been to highlight its various identities (European, Muslim, Turkic, Oriental) in order to engage different target audiences (Western countries and others, primarily the Middle East).

From 2008, energy exports began to generate vast amounts of wealth for the state, allowing Azerbaijan to launch its nation branding and public relations strategy at the international level. Having been part of the Soviet Union for 70 years, Azerbaijan was relatively unknown globally. As an independent state, the country aimed not only to put itself on the global map, but also to create positive associations and a good reputation. Beginning with the Eurovision Song Contest in 2012, the country has hosted a series of international sport and cultural events such as the European Games (2015), Azerbaijani Formula 1 (2016, 2017, 2018), the Islamic Solidarity Games (2017), the International Jazz Festival (2005-2018), and International Shopping Festivals (2015-2018). Alongside cultural events, Baku has also gathered former and current world leaders for international political summits and forums, such as the World Forum on Intercultural Dialogue (2011, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2017), the Baku International Humanitarian Forum (2011-2014, 2016, 2018), and the Baku Global Forum (2013-2018).

During this time, the capital city of Azerbaijan has undergone a drastic makeover, transforming itself from a typical Soviet city to a modern and highly cultured space. The construction of futuristic buildings by world-famous architects has led to the moniker the Dubai of the Caucasus, while the re-design of Soviet buildings, streets, and parks to match French-style architecture has prompted people to refer to it as the Paris of the Caucasus. This paper will explore how Azerbaijan started to brand itself when sporting, cultural, and political events put Azerbaijan on spotlights providing access to broad global audience. More specifically, it examines how Azerbaijan has deployed its multi-layered, multi-faceted cultural identity and unique geographic location for nation branding purposes (as a crossroads of western and eastern civilizations and belonging to both Asia and Europe).

The paper argues that for western audiences, Azerbaijan has branded itself as a secular, culturally Muslim Asian country in order to achieve its diplomatic and soft power ambitions. For non-western audiences, it presents itself as European for economic purposes, namely to attract tourism and investment.
Louise Grimmer. Marketing the city: An examination of precinct marketing programs and retail resilience
Abstract: Retailing is an essential social, economic and cultural activity, and a strong retail sector makes a significant contribution to local communities and to local, state and national economies. Small, independent retailers contribute to their local communities by providing a variety of goods and services, employment opportunities, and an alternative to the offerings from multinational corporations. However, increases in the array and availability of products, with accompanying price transparency, the globalisation and expanding dominance of large retail chains, tremendous growth in online sales, rapid advances in communication and distribution technologies and turbulent economies all contribute to a volatile and competitive environment for ‘traditional’ bricks and mortar retailers, particularly small retailers.

This study answers the call by Rao and Summers (2016) for further research on resilience theory in the context of retailing. Retail resilience has been defined as ‘the ability of different types of retailing at different scales to adapt to changes, crises or shocks, that challenge the system’s equilibrium, without failing to perform its functions in a sustainable way’ (Fernandes & Chamusca, 2014, p. 2). The concept of ‘retail resilience’ has been applied in recent years in town planning, spatial and geographical studies of retail high streets, main streets and town centre developments (e.g. Dobson, 2015; Barata-Salgueiro & Erkip, 2014; Fernandes & Chamusca, 2014; Karrholm, Nylund & Prieto de la Fuente, 2014). This study aims to extend the notion of retail resilience by examining the role of precinct marketing programs in fostering resilience for retailers operating within the geographical boundaries of such marketing programs.

The ability for individual retailers and for retail precincts (such as central business districts) to leverage resilience is particularly important, as ‘traditional’ bricks and mortar retailers operate in an increasingly challenging landscape as mentioned earlier. Indeed, in many countries, large and small retail firms are exiting the industry as high streets, town centres and suburban shopping districts report declining visitor numbers. In response, local councils with responsibility for economic development, continue to manage and refine marketing programs designed to promote shopping precincts as destinations offering an array of retail, service and hospitality options for shoppers and visitors.
Given the importance of small, independent retail firms an understanding of the factors contributing to firm performance and to the notion of ‘resilience’ is critical. Marketing can be considered one such factor, and this research focuses on the objectives and impact of retail precinct marketing programs in four city sites across the island state of Tasmania in Australia. The main objective of these marketing programs is essentially to provide retailers ‘free’ marketing through various promotional campaigns, activation activities and other initiatives promoting the city centre. To date there has been little research conducted examining the rationale, design and objectives of such programs and their impact on retailers. This study is therefore being conducted in two stages; this paper focuses on the findings from stage one which involves interviews with representatives from local councils and affiliated organisations responsible for marketing and/or economic development for the CBD in each site.
Maja Konecnik Ruzzier, Mojca Smrekar and Mitja Ruzzier. Customer-based brand equity for small tourist destination: The case of Soca valley
Abstract: The paper highlights and draws attention to the importance of branding small destination, the concept, which is also poorly researched at the global level. The majority of previous studies (Konecnik and Gartner, 2007; Chen and Myagmarsuren, 2010; Bianchi and Pike, 2011; Bianchi et al., 2014) have investigated bigger destinations, mostly on a country level. In our example, we decided to investigate a small tourist destination Soca valley. The Soca valley region lies in Slovenia, European Union country, near the border with Austria and Italy. It is famous for its divine nature, threading through it is the magically aquamarine Soca River. Tourists can experience the ultimate adrenalin adventures (i.e. rafting, hiking) in the natural and historical grounded environment. The Soca valley brand, developed in 2011, embraces all latest directions that are most desirable for a successful destination branding. It is closely related with national I feel Slovenia brand, developed by several Slovenian stakeholders in year 2007 (Konecnik Ruzzier and de Chernatony, 2013).

Within this paper, we focus on analyzing the customer-based brand equity of Soca valley. The study instrument was adopted from the previous research, which evaluated consumer brand equity for a tourist destination (Konecnik and Gartner, 2007; Bianchi and Pike, 2011; Bianchi, Pike and Lings, 2014). We decided to include four elements for evaluation: awareness, image, perceived quality and loyalty. The results of the quantitative research, conducted on 211 Slovenian potential visitors, imply, that measurement instrument can be transferred also on the case of small tourist destination. In addition, results imply that Slovenians are aware of Soca valley, have a positive image about it, which is especially related to its beautiful nature, mountains and rivers and great opportunities for outdoor activities. Natural attractions (more functional attributes) were best evaluated also in regard to quality dimension. Finally, respondent seemed to be loyal visitors, as they evaluated behavioral and attitudinal items high. Slovenian based brand equity for Soca Valley is very much in line with its proposed identity and the idea of its sustainability. The proposed findings can provide a good basis for upgrading its further long-term strategies.



Refrences
Bianchi, C., & Pike, S. (2011). Antecedents of attitudinal destination loyalty for a long-haul market: Australia’s brand equity among Chilean visitors. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 28(7), 736-750.
Bianchi, C., Pike, S., & Lings, I. (2014). Investigating attitudes towards three South American destinations in an emerging long haul market using a model of consumer-based brand equity (CBBE). Tourism Management, 42, 215-223.
Chen, C. F., & Myagmarsuren, O. (2010). Exploring relationships between Mongolian destination brand equity, satisfaction and destination loyalty. Tourism Economics, 16(4), 981-994.
Konecnik Ruzzier, M., & de Chernatony, L. (2013). Developing and applying a place brand identity model: The case of Slovenia. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 45-52.
Konecnik, M., & Gartner, W.C. (2007). Customer-based brand equity for a destination. Annals of Tourism Research, 34, 400-421.


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