Theory, meet practice. Practice, meet theory.

Partial list of accepted presentations for parallel sessions

Below is a preview of the exciting and thought-provoking presentations we can expect from the conference in December. The list is incomplete and currently being updated as speakers and presentations are confirmed. The list also not sorted in any particular order. To find keywords or author names, use Ctrl-F function of your browser (in Macs or OS devices, use Command+F). A complete and functionally indexed list will be made available soon in the Programme page of this website, including the time and venue of each presentation.

Ilan Manor. Palestine on Facebook: A State in the Making
Abstract: Recent years have seen the digitalization of diplomacy. Among other innovations, digital diplomacy enables diplomats to overcome the limitations of traditional diplomacy. Such is the case with virtual embassies that overcome lack of bi-lateral ties. Notable examples include America’s virtual Embassy to Iran and Israel’s Twitter Embassy to the Gulf. Previous studies found that, while virtual embassies enable diplomats to brand their nation among foreign publics, most fail in public diplomacy activities due to lack of online engagement with connected publics. The adoption of approaches that emphasize relationships between organizations and stakeholders have served as a conceptual link between the fields of public diplomacy and public relations. Recently, nation branding scholars have also advocated the adoption of relational approaches which may now serve a conceptual link between the fields of public diplomacy, public relations and nation branding. An additional link is lack of clarity when using the terms ‘‘dialogue’’ and ‘‘engagement’’ in all three fields. This study attempted to further to investigate the association between nation branding, public diplomacy and public relations by evaluating the activities of Palestine’s Facebook Embassy to Israel launched in 2016.

The Palestinian Embassy represents a fascinating case study given that Palestine is a semi-recognized State with semi-recognized borders that has no physical diplomatic presence in Israel. Using thematic analysis, this study analyzed all posts published by the Embassy over a five month period. Results suggest that the Embassy uses Facebook to depict a future, independent, Palestine and to narrate its national character. Facebook Posts portrayed Palestinian nationhood by depicting its national institutions and national symbols (e.g., national soccer team, philharmonic). Moreover, the Embassy depicted the values of the future Palestine including its democratic nature, its protection of minorities’ rights and its adoption of diplomacy over force. Palestine thus emerges as a “State in the Making”. These results demonstrate that Palestine practices a unique form of nation branding meant to elicit Israeli support for Palestinian nationhood.

Using the public relations framework of dialogic engagement (Taylor & Kent, 2014), the study also evaluated the Embassy’s engagement with Israeli Facebook users. Results show that the Embassy routinely interacts with Israeli users by answering questions and responding to their criticism and comments. By so doing, the Embassy manifests Palestine’s future attributes of democracy and diplomacy while building relationships with Israeli stakeholders. The Palestinian Embassy therefore demonstrates how dialogic engagement may be used to advance both public diplomacy and nation branding goals.
Mohamed Alansaari. The role of strategic place branding communications in attracting FDI: toward a sustainable competitiveness of places
Abstract: The advancement of technology and globalization has developed a framework of unprecedented level of competitiveness between cities and nations worldwide. The ever changing market trends has made places very competitive in the strive to access and attract local, regional and international investments, talent and tourists. In this regard the notion of “place brand” has risen to become an important factor for cities and nations to get a competitive edge on their competitors. The brand of a place has an integral role in the ability to diversify global market shares in terms of consumers, investors, exports and tourists. Hence, place branding has become one of the most crucial communication tools being invested in by governments. That said brand communication strategies deployed by governments can take different forms and measuring their impact and usefulness in enhancing the place image and ultimately ability to attract tourists, talents and foreign direct investment is a task not undertaken by many scholars. Thus this study intends to construct a measuring tool to identify place images and measure the impact of brand communication strategies deployed by governments on place brand image and ultimately its relation to attracting FDI. The study is of importance because generally quantitative studies in the domain of place branding are very limited. Additionally, research conducted on place branding communications constitute as an area of that has not been thoroughly investigated in the MENA region.
Árpád Papp-Váry. Hungary or Magyarország? - Which 'brand name' is better from a country branding perspective?
Abstract: "What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other word would smell as sweet,” writes Shakespeare. But he is wrong: a rose by any other name would not be as fragrant.
Marketers (and, in many cases, consumers) are well aware of this from the world of branded products: a cleverly chosen brand name can significantly increase the value of a lesser quality product, while a poor brand name may hinder the sales of a quality product.
It might be strange, but this analogy is also valid for countries. In many cases, we judge a country or nation by its name if we do not know anything about it. Therefore it is an important dilemma to decide which name Hungary shall use in each country. The adjective "hun" of the country name "Hungary” refers to Huns and their ruler, Attila. We might think that this is an advantage, but in most cases they are considered barbarians, who ravaged Europe.
The study attempts to resolve this dilemma and makes suggestions, while other countries (and their names) are also discussed.
Viriya Taecharungroj. A Place Brand Management Cycle: Bridging Academics and Practitioners in Place Branding
Abstract: One of the main issues in place branding research is its relevance to practices. Seemingly, place branding research cannot gain sufficient attention and admiration from practitioners. Many practitioners do not believe their needs in place branding are met by place branding research (Govers, Kaefer, & Ferrer-Roca, 2017). What practitioners need from academics are clear concepts, definitions, usage of key terms, and practical management tools (Govers et al., 2017; Kavaratzis, 2015). Due to the complexity of place brands, those practical tools should incorporate a range of brand elements that is broad enough to establish a comprehensive understanding (Zenker, 2011). In 2009, Ashworth and Kavaratzis wrote that there is no widely accepted blueprint for place brand management. Since then, there were some tools and frameworks developed by scholars to bridge this gap such as the strategic place brand management model (Hanna & Rowley, 2013) and the 4D place branding model (Fan, 2014). However, these models have certain limitations that can be further developed.

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to introduce a comprehensive and practical model called a place brand management cycle (PBM-Cycle). A PBM-Cycle model in Figure 1 illustrates the four actions place brand managers can take to manage a place brand and eleven place brand elements within those actions. The four actions (4As) include arranging, assessing, articulating, and activating. This new model is different from existing models because not only it is a comprehensive model that incorporates essential brand elements and actions, but it is also a compilation of other tools developed by academics in the field of place branding. The purpose of this model development is therefore, to utilise valuable academic works by previous scholars and present them in a coherent manner. The author compiled a tools and frameworks developed by place branding researchers (Table 1). In order to manage a place brand, place brand managers are encouraged to use the PBM-Cycle as a foundation and to incorporate tools that are relevant to a specific context. This conceptual paper also puts forth some research agendas for place branding researchers:
1. A further study to identify the tool or the set of tools that are suitable for specific contexts, e.g. an image crisis, a decline in tourism, or a lack of position
2. A systematic literature review according to various place brand elements
3. A rigorous study on causal relationships among brand elements
Dr. Michael Chattalas and Dr. Irawati Priyanti. National Stereotype Effects on High versus Low-Contact Service Expectations: Branding Indonesia
Abstract: Extended Abstract
To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to explore the impact of national stereotypes (perceived warmth and perceived competence) associated with a service-product's nation-brand, as regards high versus low-contact service-type. Specifically, our first field experiment tests for the differential effect of perceived warmth and perceived competence on service-quality expectations by US consumers of high-contact versus low-contact telecommunication services originating from the emerging Asian nation of Indonesia versus that of the emerged Asian economy of Japan. A follow-up study tests the effects of priming competence and warmth via online-video advertisements on US consumer evaluations of low-contact Indonesian telecommunication services. Results of our Study 1 show that perceived competence effects more positive service expectations of both low and high-contact services, whereas perceived warmth has a significant effect only on evaluations of high-contact services. Furthermore, parallel results were found after subjects were primed with online video advertising manipulations of Indonesian competence and warmth in Study 2.
Overall, our findings provide empirical evidence that national stereotypes associated with COO influence consumers' evaluations of services. Our study is the first to empirically demonstrate the relatively higher effect of perceptions of warmth associated with a country’s people (versus perceptions of competence) on services with a high level of customer contact.
Our experimental studies’ results hold practical implications for both international marketers as well as public policy-makers engaged in nation-branding. As high-contact services involve a higher experiential component, the stronger impact of a warmly-perceived COO implies that export service providers in industries such as tourism and hospitality must be trained to project a higher level of emotional and cultural intelligence.
Results of our follow-up study imply that NS perception could be repositioned by priming higher consumer knowledge, akin to nation-branding advertising or international communication programs. If the kind of service is low-contact (such as technology and knowhow exports), it will be more deliberate to provide information which improves competence perceptions. Conversely, if service type is high-contact (such as calling centers exports), it may be advisable to promote warmth perceptions. Nevertheless, results of our first study show that perceived competence effects positive service expectations of both low and high-contact services, whereas perceived warmth impacts only high-contact services. Further research is needed to investigate this asymmetrical effect of stereotype contents, showing evidence of the primacy of competence over warmth across service type.
Jose Castillo. The Marginalized Sounds of Peru: Peruvian Music Diplomacy
Abstract: Perú’s musical traditions have not received the same international push from the Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the same way Peruvian gastronomy has. In the following report, I place Peruvian Music as the logical counterpart to its cuisine and propose stronger Music Diplomacy efforts to be incorporated into the existing national brand. I analyze the cultural importance of the sounds that in my opinion constitute the best exponents of Peruvian Music: Chicha (Peruvian Cumbia) and Afro-Peruvian music. For each style, I describe the marginalized communities (migrant Amerindian in one case and Afro-descendant in the other) these music styles originated from, as well as identify and compare the independent players, both domestic and international, behind Peruvian Music’s limited international exposure. The conclusion drawn from the analysis of the music diplomacy efforts behind both styles is that music diplomacy can address Perú’s issues of poverty, inequality and racism in a way gastro-diplomacy has not been able to do. Tourists visiting Perú attracted by gastro-diplomacy encounter a much more heterogeneous and underrepresented society than the one portrayed in the national brand. I conclude that the multi-racial nature of Chicha and Afro-Peruvian music, can help Perú mitigate this racism and inequality while at the same time create a more “well-rounded” image abroad. For Music Diplomacy recommendations, I recommend the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to engage in stronger musical exchanges and musical education efforts. Musical and educational exchanges with countries like Ecuador and Colombia, countries that share similar cultures shaped by their Amerindian and Afro-descendant population, can find a common ground in their musical roots and collaborate through workshops, music festivals and recorded collaborations. I also recommend the Foreign Ministry to push the Peruvian government towards subsidizing efforts, like the ones in Cuba and Brazil, where communities get an economic support for promoting the music of their country.
Anne-Flore Maman Larraufie and Angela Sargeni. Destination Branding in Haute-villégiature – a Practitioners' perspective
Abstract: Practitioners and market research companies have identified a shift from consuming luxury goods to consuming luxury experiences (Atwal and Williams, 2009, Beverland and Lindgreen, 2002). Esp. there is a boom of consumption of exceptional travels/stays/journeys from all cultural origins and all-around the world. Companies have emerged, whose duty is to craft the journey for these clients. They call themselves travel designers. Simultaneously, the usual players from the hospitality and travel industry (e.g. hotels, yacht renting companies, airlines, etc.) challenge the limits of their offer, showcasing unique and sometimes time-limited “products”. This is the equivalent of Haute-couture in the travel industry: Haute-villégiature.
Haute-Villégiature has been defined (Maman Larraufie and Sargeni, 2018) as being about designing and delivering travel experiences with the highest quality standards, by highly knowledgeable people who are experts in their business and led by passion. Each Maison has its own style and personality, but all are creative and innovative to surprize and exceed expectations of their clients. These clients are unique and have specific expectations. The overall objective of Haute Villégiature is thus to be a wow factor in the travel industry. We want to understand in the present study how actors of Haute-villégiature use destination branding (or shape it) in their strategy. Especially, as origin is fundamental in luxury branding (Aiello et al., 2009, Maman Larraufie, 2013) and marketing, we expect a close interplay in-between their branding strategy and the destination branding strategy. We want to understand the synergies and/or tensions.
Using a professional event, The Edge of Luxury, that will gather in June 2018 a series of main actors from Haute-villégiature, we will explore our research question using two different methodologies: face-to-face interviews with these actors (in-depth semi-directive interviews) and desk research of their communication material (website, brochures, …). All data will be addressed using content analysis (Berelson, 1952, Cavanagh, 1997). As this study is exploratory, it is hard to predict its results. We will confront these with how destination branding is used by companies in general, esp. in the luxury industry.
Yanchun Huang. Brand Building of China’s Red Tourism and Red Tourism Culture
Abstract: To build an international brand of China’s red tourism has become a strong wish of Chinese authorities, which is not only the requirement of the sustainable development of red tourism in China, but also meets the international trend of globalization/glocalization of culture, and thus the concept “red tourism culture” appears. Firstly, as in building other brands, some basic issues should be well considered, such as brand awareness, brand orientation, cultural connotation, quality service, etc.. Further, for brands of red tourism, what is critical is the construction of “red tourism culture”. Unfortunately, many Chinese authorities are still poor in understanding “red tourism culture” as the embodiment of glocalization of culture and a dynamic system.

A well understanding of “red tourism culture” may be based on Bourdieu’s cultural field theory, and a three dimension model can be suggested as a theoretical and methodological framework: Horizontally, Chinese culture and Western/foreign cultures; Vertically, historical memories and present-age elements; And the interweaving of the two forms knowledge learning and recreational-travel. Sure, the key is to activate the interaction between the two parts of each dimension, and to form a vigorous systematic whole of tourism culture field. And the first job is to well balance the two parts of these three pairs, though usually Chinese culture and historical memories weigh much more than their counterparts.

Thus, the brand building of red tourism means to maintain the Chinese characteristics of culture and history, and enhance its international competitiveness to attract more foreign tourists and go towards glocalization. The effort is possible because of its peculiar Chinese “Red”. But the difficulty is how to best show the glamour of red culture in tourism, how to make it meet the taste of foreign visitors, and further how to develop China’s red culture into a big and strong industry, or more important, in a glocalizing way. In this sense, more emphasis should be laid on some principles of tourism culture and innovations suitable for tourism subjects’ psychology and aesthetic taste.

Specifically, red tourism attractions are to be improved in authenticity, infrastructure, comprehensive service level, and especially appealing to foreign tourists. And most importantly, concerned authorities should have a clear orientation of glocalization of red tourism culture and effective measures for the sustainable development of China’s red tourism.

Take Shaoshan, Mao’s native place as an example, what makes Shaoshan outstanding is its celebrity culture, as it’s the native place of Mao Zedong, the icon of modern China and Chinese culture. The brand orientation of Shaoshan should highlight Mao, his early life in Shaoshan and his experience of changing from a countryside teenager into a revolutionary pioneer. The cultural connotation or red tourism culture of Shaoshan lies in sound interaction between Mao’s Chinese culture and foreign tourists’ cultural preoccupation.
Olga Rauhut Kompaniets. A ‘bottom-up’ place marketing initiative: Destination Lund Sweden
Abstract: Background. While New York Times and Vogue described Lund and the southernmost region in Sweden as an undiscovered pearl waiting to be explored, the local tourism office of Lund asked tourists to go to visit places outside Lund. This is not due to a huge and steady flow of tourists visiting the city of Lund. Lund is one of the oldest town in Scandinavia, with a rich and fascinating history.
Aim. This paper aims at discussing the citizen initiative to place market the city of Lund.
Main approach. Destination Lund can be seen as a ‘bottom-up’ response by residents in 2016 to the politically controlled local tourism office’s attempts to involve residents in ‘top-down’ activities and dismantling of the city brand. A unique material has been collected through participating observation.
Key arguments/findings. By using smart tourism technologies and the fact that many of the members are experienced travellers, a set of downloadable material for smart phones and tablets in several languages have been developed: maps, guides, films and useful links. All material is free of charge on the Facebook page and at the blog. The local tourism office run by the municipality oppose – and even combat – these efforts, as they want the tourists to come to their office and buy their printed products; their focus is on the surrounding countryside.
The digital map of sights and attractions, practical information (ATMs, toilets, bike stations etc.) has been a virtual success. The biking tour around the battlefield of the Battle of Lund has been highlighted by the Swedish Tourism Association. Moreover, some busloads of tourists have arrived to Lund.
Conclusion. Several lessons can be learned from Lund. The locals are the best ambassadors for a place; Kotler is right indeed. Know-how and enthusiasm can achieve more in place marketing than the official tourism office with a budget. Moreover, the third sector can play an important role in place marketing activities. A key to successful place marketing lays in a good product and to master marketing through social media.
Herve Atayi. Unlocking the garden of Eden: a postcolonial reading of tourists and locals' image of the Seychelles
Abstract: There is a growing interest in destinations’ image formation and in particular how third world countries and their hosts are represented in tourist brochures.
It has been argued that brochures influence tourists’ decisions by appealing to their presuppositions, beliefs and expectations using well-crafted wordings evoking paradise, exoticism and the surreal. Theoretical frameworks drawn from the social sciences have been used to explain and understand destinations’ image formation in third world countries. However, none of them have examined, in-depth, the Indian Ocean, thus making the region under-studied, in particular the island of the Seychelles. Moreover, the formation of the image of a destination is consistently represented through tourist brochures and the media, thus neglecting the lived experience of tourists and locals alike.
The main objective in this research is to understand how the image of the Seychelles is represented by tourists and locals.
Using photo-elicitation, combined with in-depth interviews and from post-colonial perspective and reading, this paper seeks to understand how tourists and locals experience the image of the Seychelles. By doing so, the researcher will attempt to bridge the gap between what is marketed in brochures and the actual lived experience in the Seychelles using a phenomenological approach.
Paul Capobianco. “Cool Japan” as a place branding strategy: Differential understandings and ambivalent results
Abstract: Aims:
In the early 2000s, the Japanese government launched a “Cool Japan” initiative aimed at developing Japan as a “national brand” and marketing positive images of Japan abroad. Drawing on Japan’s cultural and technological resources that experienced popularity overseas, “Cool Japan” uses public-private partnerships to project a specific image of Japan’s identity on a global stage. To date, academic coverage of “Cool Japan” has been limited in scope. Branding scholars have not covered this effort in any significant capacity despite its direct relevance to destination branding and place marketing. On the other hand, social scientists have critiqued these initiatives on economic, cultural, and political grounds, and have deemed them failures (Daliot-Bul 2009; Iwabuchi 2002; Valaskivi 2013). There is thus a considerable dearth of literature exploring the ways these efforts have succeeded and what implications these efforts have on how Japan is perceived. Given Japan’s recent tourism boom, record numbers of foreigners studying and working in Japan, and renewed faith in Abenomics-backed government policy, it begs the question whether or not these policies have truly failed to enhance Japan’s value as a destination.

(1) I will show how, contrary to much social scientific critique, “Cool Japan” may have in fact worked to enhance Japan’s value as a tourism, educational, and cultural destination in ways that have long-term implications.
(2) I demonstrate how “Cool Japan” engages place branding (Anholt 2007; Kotler and Gertner 2004; Papadopoulous and Heslop 2002) and marketing literature in practice, and how “Cool Japan” can advance understandings of these theoretical concepts. Specifically, I examine how the Japanese government has utilized place branding strategies and I raise several points concerning how place branding theories can be enhanced by understanding Japan’s efforts.
(3) I argue that critiques of “Cool Japan” have failed to account for large systemic changes in travel and tourism from the consumer perspective, which has yielded problematic and insufficient understandings of Japan’s branding effort. Considering these issues from a place branding perspective, I suggest we can better understand the interconnected actions of macro- and micro-level forces to more comprehensively make sense of “Cool Japan” and its outcomes.

Main Approach:
I will make these arguments using primary data collected from foreign tourists and foreign residents in Japan, and through an extensive literature review of extant scholarship and official documents.

This presentation shows that despite receiving only scant and critical scholarly attention, “Cool Japan” efforts need to be considered within a wider framework of global systemic changes in tourism and consumer behaviors to capture their true impact and implications. It also shows that the ultimate outcomes of “Cool Japan” are much more ambiguous than scholars have previously suggested. In doing so, I demonstrate the ways that “Cool Japan” relates to contemporary destination branding theory and makes use of different strategies proposed by branding scholars.

Eli Avraham. Factors creating affinity between destinations and target audiences in tourism ads: Towards a conceptual model
Abstract: The growing competition between tourism destinations, especially those perceived as providing "similar" products (e.g., Caribbean) and the frequent crises in tourism over the past two decades have posed many challenges for marketers. These marketers have been forced to seek creative marketing strategies, to brand destinations differently, and to search for more resilient target audiences during crisis events, while attempting to create an affinity with potential consumers. Brand-customer relationships and the effects of affinity have been studied extensively until today by COO (Country-Of-Origin) researchers; However, there is very little research on destinations’ "projected image" and the attempts of marketers to create an affinity between destinations and target audiences.
The main research question in this study is: Which spheres, techniques, tools, and means were used by tourism marketers in ads in order to in order to create affinity between destinations and various target audiences? The specific research questions were: 1.What was the geographical base of the target audiences that were at the center of campaigns and advertisements that were trying to create affinity for target audiences to tourism destinations?. 2.Which spheres did destinations marketers use to create an affinity between various target audiences and destinations? 3.Which techniques and means did destinations marketers use to create an affinity between various target audiences and destinations? The 108 case studies were collected from academic literature, video sharing site, five tourism magazines (two samples: 2008-2009, 2016-2017) and tourism slogans website. The current study included only ads that attempted to create affinity between destinations and certain audiences on a specific geographical basis (continent/area, country, diaspora or domestic); for example, an ad to promote the Bahamas for an American audience or campaign to attract British tourists to Las-Vegas: “Visit a place where your accent is aphrodisiac”. Using qualitative content analysis of ads, the study suggests a theoretical model offering typologies of factors used by tourism marketers to achieve affinity. Based on previous research the model takes into account four factors used to achieve ad campaigns goals: the target audience (global, continent/area, country, diaspora, domestic), spheres (national, geographical, economic, cultural), appeal strategies (rational, emotional), and tools (slogans, text, visuals, logos, models). This model, entitled “factors involved in creating affinity between destinations and target audiences,” contributes to research literature by filling the pre-existing gap caused by the paucity of research about a destination’s projected image. In addition, the model has practical implications for marketers who can now learn about the possibilities of creating an affinity with different target audiences, how to overcome a negative image and negative attitudes toward destinations, as well as how to restore destination image after crisis events.
In Mei Iao. Understanding Travel Characteristics of Mainland Chinese Casino Tourists to Macao: Who Are They?
Abstract: Macao has experienced significant changes in economy and tourism development (e.g. visitor arrivals, types of visitors) as a result of the liberalization of its gaming industry, the ease of travel restrictions for Mainland Chinese travellers via the introduction of the Individual Visit Scheme policy, and the new position as the World Centre of Tourism and Leisure by integrating the newly established attractions and resorts. These incidents and factors may eventually lead to the evolvement in the types and characteristics of visitors, the emergence of new segments and changes in the pattern of visitor attitudes and behaviours on the trip to Macao.

This article presents the preliminary findings of a survey of 600 Mainland Chinese casino tourists and gamblers, with the purpose of identifying the profile of these Mainland visitors to Macao, and providing a better understanding about this segment on their socio-demographic and trip-related characteristics, through analysis of their travel purposes and place of residence. It was long believed that casino gambling in Macao is a prominent activity for Mainland Chinese tourists. The results, however, revealed that majority of them were leisure focused on the trip to Macao. They spent a fairly short time on casino gambling; they undertook many other non-gaming tourism activities like shopping and dining; they have also been sightseeing outdoors and visited World Heritage sites. Casinos, being a landmark of Macao, are just one stop on their itinerary in Macao. Gambling is an activity that forms part of their wider visit to casinos. The result attempts to show that not every Mainland visitor who gambles in casinos produces the same travel and gambling behaviour. The leisure group of Mainland casino tourists are important to the travel market of Macao.

This information might provide a starting point for an evolutionary analysis of Mainland Chinese casino tourists' profile, and offer some insights to destination marketers and casino marketers when devising marketing strategies, designing products, services and activities that meet the needs of the clientele segments.
Georgia Lalou, Sotiria Katsafadou and Alex Deffner. Creative Sensory Landscapes in the Realm of Place Marketing: a Case Study in the City of Volos, Greece
Abstract: The concept of creativity and the analysis of senses influence one’s perception of the landscape and the promotion of place through place marketing and place branding procedures. In this paper, creativity, sensoryscapes and place marketing are analysed, aiming at the identification of places that combine expressions of creativity, and from which sensoryscapes emerge. The aim of the paper is to investigate how creative activities can contribute to the sensorial perception of a landscape and how the interaction between sensoryscapes and creative activities can be turned into an advantage for the promotion of a place's identity.
The part of the research presented here focuses on the city of Volos which is the capital city of the Regional Unit of Magnesia, Greece where the larger research was conducted. The city was selected due to its distinct civic image in the research area and three separate methods to acquire findings were used, following the relevant literature. These methods combined: a) semi-structured/ narrative interviews for the identification and evaluation of the creative identity of the city, b) questionnaires to visitors, residents and creative entrepreneurs regarding the creative image of the city and its promotion,˙ and c) sensory walks (focusing on the senses of vision, hearing and smell) in smaller, selected urban areas, which resulted from the previous findings aiming at the detection of the relationship of the area’s creativity with the sensorial landscape.
The main findings of the research relate to the conclusion that in the creative sensoryscapes analysed, specific creativity criteria were present, leading to the main argument that when these criteria occur in a place, it is mostly likely for strong sensoryscapes to emerge. This could also create a strong image for the place that could lead to further development, through specific place marketing procedures, activating diverse senses and attracting multiple target groups, in order for a sense of place to be established. The research was funded by an IKY scholarship through the program ‘Research Projects for Excellence IKY/SIEMENS’.
Jana Peterkova. Czechia – investment as a topic for its future brand?
Abstract: This article deals with a closer look at investment promotion and analyzes the relationship and mutual influence between investment promotion and other branding topics such as talent attraction, export, tourism, culture, or governance through the example of the practice of small states. The aim of the text is to evaluate the position of investment promotion within national branding strategies and other relevant documents. The first part presents a brief outline of motives to care for the good reputation of Czechia and of the relationship between relevant concepts. This article explains a care for the reputation of the country as an umbrella concept, as a complex activity that overlaps and complements concepts such as nation branding or public diplomacy to varying degrees. The second part concentrates its attention on the system of a small state and what the specifics are of the care for the country’s reputation. The primary interest goes into its strategy and actors. The third part first deals with the comparison of practice in three small states (Czechia, Slovakia, and Finland) and the role of investment promotion in their documents. All these countries can be considered small states: Finland is a very successful country in the area of branding, and Czechia and Slovakia have many common moments in their history. Later, this article will search for the position of investment promotion among other relevant topics and for the reasons for such a situation. As a research tool, this article uses normative analysis of strategies and related documents that the state uses to care for the reputation of the country and especially for investment promotion.
Gurpreet Kour and Mihalis Kavaratzis. Destination campaigns as strategic brand building tools: The multi-case study of four Indian states.
Abstract: Aims and Approach:
This study argues for a stronger link between destination campaigns and destination brand-building. We examine campaigns in their wide role as strategic tools rather than as narrow, operational marketing tools. The main aim is to identify and critically discuss the key dimensions of destination promotional campaigns and assess the factors that enhance their potential contribution to the destination brand. Marketing communications in general, and destination campaigns in particular, play a crucial role in the destination brand-building process (Morgan et al, 2002). However, this role has not been clarified adequately, especially in terms of the link to identity-making processes (Kavaratzis and Hatch, 2013) of a destination by its main stakeholders (Sheehan et al, 2007) and in relation to the significance of internal stakeholders for creating a destination brand (Konecnik & Go, 2008; Pike & Page, 2014). We argue that this leaves a gap in our understanding of the strategic contribution of destination campaigns to the wider destination brand-building process, which needs to be explored.

Methodology and Findings:
We use a series of in-depth interviews with DMOs and advertising agencies in a multi-case methodology to examine the campaigns of four Indian states (Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Rajasthan and Gujarat). Within-case analysis provides information on each campaign’s development, the media and creative strategy, the campaign planning process and its critical components. Cross-case analysis identifies common patterns and dimensions that are significant across all cases. Our findings show that six key dimensions can be considered as value enhancers for the campaign planning process and its success: a) strategic brand orientation, b) destination product development, c) destination leadership, d) stakeholder involvement, e) client-agency relationship and f) destination communications.

Conclusions and Contribution:
These dimensions go beyond the narrow planning of the campaign and allow us to offer a stronger link between campaign planning and brand-building. Differentiation points for the destination brand can be created and communicated if the six key dimensions of the campaigns are understood and if all of them are fully incorporated into destination campaign planning. A campaign planning framework is introduced that incorporates these dimensions and outlines their theoretical and practical significance.

Chunying Wen and Yingying Wu. Measuring The Effectiveness of Place Advertisements - From The Perspective of Place Branding
Abstract: Brand articulation and brand communication are the two components of the strategic place brand management process (Hanna and Rowley 2015). Advertising is one of the most common and noticeable vehicles used by places to express themselves through visual and audio messages and to communicate the brand to the target audience. There are still many disputes about whether advertising work in building the place brand. The answer is positive when considering a place as a product. The classical advertising effectiveness theory believes that massive advertising investment helps to stimulate consumption, increase sales and better brand awareness. However, the huge input for media outlets usually accounts for the bulk of the place branding budget, yet the evaluation of the effect remains vague.

Based on previous research, here are three reasons. First, most of the theories on place advertising are borrowed from destination advertising. A considerable part of communication-effect research has focused on the affective and cognitive perception of the advertising campaign or other media exposure, such as the awareness, recall, like/dislike, or the tendency to act(Boo, Busser et al. 2009, Dwyer, Pham et al. 2013, Weaver 2015). However, whoever spends money on media publicity will not be satisfied with the perception level of the effect evaluation. There is a gap between the outcome expectation and the effect evaluation which is based on the cognition assessment.

Second, unlike other products, a place is a complex synthesis, which has the features of both product and service. Meanwhile, it is the emotional connection itself because of its spatial and relationship attributes. Therefore, it has its particularity as the advertising subject. The place brand is a useful tool not only for “establishing distinctive brand recognition and achieving the biggest market competitiveness”, but also for competing with other places for limited, hypermobile financial, human or cultural resources(Kavaratzis and Ashworth 2007). Then, the attracting of consumers, tourist, investors, entrepreneurs, international sporting and cultural events, and the people of other countries was recognized as the main aim and ultimate end of place branding (Anholt 2008) .

Third, the complex value creation process which characterises place branding also creates difficulties in the measurement of performance and brand equity. The empirical measurement of a brand in general can be divided into three main approaches: First, in the form of free brand associations of target customers using qualitative methods (Supphellen 2000) ; secondly, in the form of attributes uncovered with quantitative methods like standardized questionnaires on different brand dimensions (Aaker 1997); and thirdly, with mixed methods such as multidimensional scaling (Carroll and Green 1997), network analyses (Henderson, Iacobucci et al. 2002), the brand concept map method (John, Loken et al. 2006), or the laddering technique based on means-end chain theory (Grunert and Grunert 1995) . However, there was no common understanding on to what extent advertising contributes to the place brand. On one hand, the benefits of strong place brands are shared between stakeholder organisations. These benefits are measured differently by different stakeholder groups and they cannot be aggregated (Hankinson 2012). On the other hand, the measurement typically depends upon the accessibility of data rather than a theoretical model that defines elements or dimensions that are part of a brand (Zenker and Braun 2015).

Recognizing these limitations, this study tries to look beyond the cognition perspective, and find some relationships between the advertising volume and the related benefits of place brand. We all know that it is difficult to draw a causal relationship between media publicity and growth of tourism and economic development, because place branding is complex and sometimes controversial. It is almost impossible to say any success is attributed to one or two attributes. however we still need to reveal what kind of relationships exist between the media expenses and the economic outcome and attractiveness. This research aims to investigate the impact of advertising volume upon local development. More specifically, the research focus on: 1) Are there any correlative relationships between advertising volume and local development and attractiveness? 2)Is there any fitting model to explain the impact between the advertising volume and the dimensions of the local development and attractiveness?

To meet this purpose, this study constructed a data set which is composed of two parts. The first part recruits auditing data of all place and tourism sector advertisements for the China Central Television from 2005 to 2015. And the second part comprises the statistical data which includes the population fluctuation, local GDP, tourism income and industrial investment etc. Given that there are more than 300 places from different administration levels in our original data set, such as provincial, prefecture, and town, we just chose 31 provincial level places in this study.

This is a two-phase research. In the first phase, we are trying to find out the possible relationship between the advertising volume and local development and attractiveness,with 5 variables -the Local GDP、Total Imports and Exports at Customs、Tourism revenue、Migration of Population、the volume of passenger transportation- to measure the local development and attractiveness. Besides, volume(frequency × length)works as an indication of the scale of the city/place advertising expenses. After having pre-judged and standardized the data, we used Pearson correlation rs two-tailed test to see the relationship between the ad volume and the tourism revenues, GDPs, migration of population, the Total Imports and Exports at Customs and the volume of passenger transportation. The results show that the advertising volume has a positive relation with Tourism revenue, and the Correlation Coefficient is 0.218. Thus, in some sense, it implies that advertising volume may have some affect on tourism revenues.

The second phase is based on these results, in which, we attempt to explore the deeper connections between advertising volume and tourism revenues by building a regression model. The related research studies indicate that since the tourism development is affect by many factors, such as seasons, distances, economic conditions and etc., the tourism revenues are also intricately influenced. Consequently, the multiple regression method is largely used in the current studies. After carded related research, this paper classifies the factors affecting tourism revenues into 4 types: number of tourists, local economic development, traffic conditions and tourism resources. Thus, this study attempts to build a multiple regression model with advertising volume as the main observed variable and number of tourists, GDP, total import and export volume, the volume of passenger transportation, and the number of National 5A tourist attractions as control variables.

Through real data analysis, this study has first verified a positive correlation between regional advertising and tourism as an important facet of place brand, and attempted to establish a fitting model to explain how advertising influences tourism revenue. Second, considering advertisements as an important channel of place brand communication, this study draws on quantitative methods of advertising effectiveness assessment, and provides a new perspective for researchers to grasp place brand measurement and a decision basis for practitioners to choose methods of place brand communication, especially in budget design. Yet, this study has only verified whether regional advertising volume and regional tourism are correlated and how they are correlated. It still remains to be explored how advertising, as one way of place brand communication, is linked with a region’s overall branding as well as investment, talent, immigration and other aspects.
Sunny Bose and Sudeepta Pradhan. Regional identity as a basis for customer based place brand equity (CBPBE) and its impact on tourism and investment thereof: A study on West Bengal
Abstract: Purpose – This study developed a psychometrically robust instrument place brand equity in line with Aaker’s (1996a, 1996b) CBBE dimensions from the perspective of regional identity. We call it the Customer Based Place Brand Equity (CBPBE) scale. We subsequently, test this scale on dimensions of destination brand equity and investment attractiveness to see whether as believed by Bose (2014) regional identity enables to generate place’s brand equity thereby brining tourists and investments.

Methodology - The methodology adapted for this study follows the instrument development process suggested by Churchill (1979). For the instrument development, both exploratory and quantitative techniques were applied. The major sources for item generation are national identity studies (Ashmore et al, 2004), place attachment studies (Sinnot, 2005), studies on regional identities (Paasi, 2009; 2010) and studies on predictors of place dimensions (Jorgensen and Stedman, 2001). Thereby, we also conducted focussed group discussions (FGDs) and depth interviews (DIs) to generate items. CFA was carried out on 445 responses collected through web surveys. Subsequently, construct validity check was done. Nomological validity was tested through structural equation modelling (SEM) using a destination brand equity measure. This validity check also served the purpose of analyzing the impact of regional identity on tourism potential of the place. Lastly, investment attractiveness measures were used to complete the study and see whether unique regional identity contributes to the place’s CBPBE thereby enabling it to garner investment.

Findings – We developed a 17 items multidimensional CBPBE scale from the perspective of regional identity. The measures attributed to Brand Salience; Brand Meaning, Perceived Quality, and Brand Attachment dimensions. Subsequent tests on the relationships between the CBPBE dimensions with other brand equity dimensions pertaining to destination branding and investment attractiveness suggested that CBPBE owing to regional identity significantly impacts destination brand loyalty and investment attraction.

Implications - The study addresses place branding and subsequently, place brand equity from the perspective of regional identity of a particular place brand. The instrument would enable managers and practitioners to effectively measure the brand equity of a place due to its unique identity. So, a place can take advantage of its unique identity and the place attachment of locals and their distinct regional identity can serve as the basis for tourism development as well as investment in the place including in the tourism sector.

Magdalena Florek, Marta Herezniak and Anna Augustyn. The practices of city brand performance evaluation - implications for the city brand effectiveness measurement system
Abstract: AIM:
The empirical objective of the paper is the diagnosis of the level of advancement of all the 66 Polish district cities in the area of brand strategy effectiveness measurement whereas its exploratory objective is to develop an universal framework for the effectiveness measurement system for the city brand strategy.

The research process was divided into four phases. The first phase comprised the analysis of available brand strategies of Polish cities. In the second phase the authors conducted 12 interviews with international experts to verify the theoretical assumptions based on literature review regarding the potential and universal measurement framework. In the third phase the authors carried out 34 face-to-face interviews and 31 telephone interviews (depending on the presence or the lack of city brand strategy) with the representatives of Polish municipalities. In the final phase (currently in progress), a framework of the effectiveness measurement system for the city brand strategy will be developed. The paper focus is on the research results obtained in the third phase of this study that provides solid foundations for the proposed measurement system.

The research conducted in Polish district cities demonstrate a genuine interest and urgent need among the representatives of district cities to appropriately measure city brand performance. Although the respondents perceive the brand as important in city management, oftentimes the lack of expertise, low awareness of measurement methods and techniques as well as major issues with intra-organizational coordination necessary to create a comprehensive measurement system are visible. The research showcased difficulties in the articulation of both strategic and operational brand objectives (or absence thereof) and in translating them into performance indicators. For the vast majority of cities, the measurement of the city brand performance occurs ad hoc and does not have a systemic nature. Moreover, city representatives appear to overlook the ‘internal’ aspect of the brand performance, and thus they tend to rely predominantly on external data sources, ignoring the ones that are readily available within public administration units or among the key stakeholders. Despite the growing willingness to measure brand performance and the pressure from diverse stakeholders to do so, the respondents (with few exceptions) are in the dark when it comes to the organization of the measurement process. An interesting observation is that the respondents’ relatively high awareness of the brand-related issues and its influence on the city’s reality does not translate into their understanding of what should be measured to evaluate brand performance reliably. In practice, the process is often limited to the simplest perception indexes that are not linked to the specificity of the city and its brand strategy.
Considerable barriers to the development of a well-functioning measurement system were also identified and include in particular: the lack of knowledge or culture of measurement, conflicting political interest, reluctance to involve internal stakeholders, insufficiency of funding, the complexity of the brand itself or the unwillingness to show the (lack of) effectiveness of brand-related activities by local authorities.

Drawing from the interviews conducted with city representatives, it becomes evident that there is a pressing need to develop guidelines and foundations of the brand performance evaluation system that diverse cities could benefit from. The dilemmas, limitations and challenges of effectiveness measurement identified during both, theoretical analyses and empirical studies have proven relevant to the problems that cities face. This applies in particular to the absence of a comprehensive structure of indicators that comprises short-, medium- and long-time perspectives on brand performance, as well as to the matter of stakeholder involvement in designing and implementing the measurement system. To address these and other issues, the proposed measurement system should include a thorough review and a structure of indicators, categorized around themes and time-frames. It also should present the list of possible data sources and stakeholder categories that could be relevant to the measurement of particular aspects of brand performance. Furthermore, a variety of measurement methods and techniques needs to be proposed for particular groups of indicators. More attention should also be drawn within the framework to the internal perspective of brand performance as these are the citizens and other internal stakeholders that are impacted by the city reputation in the first place. The proposed system should offer some organizational solutions concerning the coordination and management of data collection and intra-organizational communication. Moreover, due to the financial limitations, the proposed solutions should be budget-sensitive and show how certain propositions can be adapted to suit particular city brand strategies. Such an approach to the measurement of the city brand strategy effectiveness is likely to reflect the brand’s strategic importance while being politically realistic at the same time.

This research was financed by the National Science Centre, Poland, research project no.2015/19/B/HS4/00380 "Towards the conceptual framework for the measurement of city brand strategy effectiveness. Theoretical developments and empirical insights from Polish district cities".
Christopher Pokarier. Only in Japan?: Issues in cuisine in cultural diplomacy & destination marketing
Abstract: This paper aims to explore potential tensions around gastronomy in destination branding, and culinary and cultural diplomacy, a priority area for the 2018 IPBA conference, through a study of the recent Japanese case.

In the last decade Japan’s culinary culture has come to adopt a prominent place in Japan’s state-sponsored nation branding and destination marketing endeavours. This is evidenced through the content of promotional materials, through state efforts to win international third party validation - such as through the successful application to UNESCO for recognition of ‘washoku’ (Japanese cuisine) as an intangible cultural product - and by state sponsorship of a certification regime to promote more ‘authentic’ Japanese cuisine abroad.

The paper first outlines these state initiatives and situates them in both the long history of Japanese public diplomacy and more recent governmental efforts to promote experience industries in international markets, often under the now cliched ‘Cool Japan’ rubric. It finds that public policy has been largely reactive: to media reportage of a Japanese cuisine boom abroad, to a long-established domestic political economy of domestic agricultural protectionism under new pressures, and to food ingredient enterprises sensing foreign market opportunities.

The paper then draws on the Japanese case to explore some general definitional and conceptual issues entailed in promoting distinctive and ‘authentic’ cuisines in place branding. Is a national or regional cuisine a full evolved complementary set of ingredients, flavours, techniques, and dishes that is relatively fixed and codified? Or a distinctive but dynamic ecology of culinary entrepreneurship? In either understanding, how strong are the ties to place of origin, whether by sourcing, customer savvy, or communities of practice? Or is a cuisine a methodology, or concept or ethos that could be applied to novel ingredients in varied contexts, by anybody schooled in it?

Whether a specific cuisine is understood as a share-able sensibility, or a location-bound cultural practice. impacts on whether gastronomy as a tool of cultural diplomacy is at odds with, or complementary to, destination marketing. Must one go to Japan to experience truly authentic Japanese cuisine?

The Japanese case is particularly illuminative given the nation’s heavy reliance on foreign supply chains for some its iconic foodstuffs, the dynamic syncretic nature of Japan’s food culture, the ritualisation of technique, and the formalisation of some Japanese gastronomy in a total aesthetics of the dining experience.

Alessandro De Nisco and Magdalena Florek. Political animosity effect on cognitive and affective perception of Europe and on attitudes towards the Made in EU label. A comparative study between Italy and Poland
Abstract: AIM:
Along with the principal objective of contributing to the academic literature on animosity, country image and ethnocentrism, the aim of the study is to provide a comparative point of view on the attitudes towards Made in EU label between Polish and Italian consumers.

This study uses recent tensions occurring in the Euro area as the research setting and it develops and tests a comprehensive research model that investigates the effect of political animosity towards Europe on cognitive and affective image of Europe, on consumer ethnocentrism, and, importantly, on attitudes toward the “Made in Europe” label. The proposed model will be tested on a sample of Italian and Polish respondents using a PAPI survey based on a structured questionnaire.

The current global environment is characterized by, among others, major financial crises, such as the global recession at the end of the previous decade and the more recent crisis of the Eurozone, which has engendered political and economic disputes that in turn affected the relationships between European nations and the spread of eurosceptic sentiments. The rise of nationalism seems to be one of the most visible consequences of the disputes across the Europe. In the last few years, many European countries have witnessed electoral gains for far-right and nationalist parties (e.g., the Front National in France, the Finns Party in Finland, the Lega Nord in Italy, the Prawo i Sprawiedliwość in Poland) that leverage the strong anti-European view of the populace. Moreover, the British referendum that has delivered a vote for leaving the EU has provided the most recent, clamorous indication that nationalism has brewed largely in reaction to the negative feeling that an increasing portion of European people have about the EU, and consequently Europe.
Effects of tensions among countries are expressed not only in the political scene, but also in trade relationships, e.g. evaluation of Made in Europe products. The academic literature in international marketing provides reliable support to the notion that foreign consumers’ anger toward a country that they perceive as hostile may affect perceptions and intention to buy products associated with it (Riefler and Diamantopoulos, 2007).

Findings from this study are of relevant practical interest both from an international marketing perspective – since they might affect the strategies employed for the promotion of the brand Europe – and from the point of view of public policy – since European and national governments need to understand the potential damage stemming from political or economic practices.
Dr Jessica Oliver, Dr Greg Kerr and Associate Professor Rodney J Clarke. Place Identity and why it matters in Place Branding
Abstract: Aims

The aim of this presentation is to explain place identity and illustrate its role in Place Branding. A framework is introduced to differentiate between place brand constructs including a place’s image, identity, brand identity competitive identity, and heritage identity. We propose place heritage identity as an identity type. Relationships between brand constructs are explained and the need for a brand-orientation to facilitate authentic place branding strategies is demonstrated.

Main Approach

The need for authentic place brand management to encourage buy-in from stakeholders (Freire 2009; Olsson & Berglund 2009; Braun, Eshuis and Klijn 2014) underpins the framework presented. To achieve authenticity, we reinforce Baxter, Kerr and Clarke’s (2013) brand-orientation approach. A brand orientation situates identity at the foundation of a place brand. This is a bottom-up approach whereby residents’ perspectives and needs drive place brand strategy.

Drawing on the literature, we differentiate the place brand concepts, place identities (internal stakeholder perspective), place images (external stakeholder perspective), place brand identity (formal representation by place managers), place competitive identity (aspirational or existing identities to drive place strategy), and place heritage identities (internal stakeholder’s perspective concerned with history). Importantly, identities could belong to one or more identity group (place identity, brand identity, competitive identity, and/or heritage identity), they are also fluid and evolve with communication (Kerr & Oliver 2014). The relevance of heritage to place branding (Cormack 2008; Balmer 2013) is explored. Heritage identity is defined as a separate identity type (Balmer, 2011) and a source of competitive advantage (Balmer & Chen 2015).

Key findings

This presentation clarifies the role and relationship between place brand concepts. Uniquely, heritage identity is explained as one identity type within a place brand framework.


The proposed framework helps managers assess alignment between place brand concepts. Place brand alignment is desirable for two reasons, to facilitate stakeholder identification, and to retain residents as the focus of a place brand strategy. As both producers and consumers of a place brand, residents have an important role in strategic development (Hanna & Rowley 2010; Aitken & Campelo 2011). Ignoring residents contributes to what Kavaratzis (2012, p.10) identifies as place branding inadequacies. Through a brand-orientated approach, managers can facilitate internal stakeholder buy-in with an authentic place brand, and potentially preserve ‘place uniqueness’ for a sustainable competitive advantage. Thus, highlighting the importance and role of identity concepts in place brand strategy.

Chao Liu, Minlin Deng, Yachen Qin and Fang Rao. The Impact of Brand Revitalization Strategy on Stereotype of City Image: Examples from Nanjing and Shenzhen
Abstract: City competition is increasingly intense currently, a good city brand has become an important edge that help a city to win opportunities of rapid development and the public’s mind. It is a real challenge for city governors that how to make a long-term management about the city brand, make it a vibrant and attractive, timely turn negative stereotypes to be positive. The theory of brand revitalization is widely used in the field of products, and it has an important reference value for the city brand management. It is a significant question that whether different brand revitalization strategies can make an effect on city brand.
This study was based on the brand revitalization theory and the stereotype content model. The experiment was designed to control brand revitalization strategies (awakening memories, changing the image, not activated) and city type (a historical and cultural city, a modern and technological city). The study was carried out for exploring different strategies how to affect the public’s cognition of the city’s competence and warmth in different cities. We wonder if brand revitalization strategy has a main effect and there is an interaction effect between brand revitalization strategies and city types.
Research results showed that the main effect of brand revitalization strategies was not significant, but an interaction effect between brand revitalization strategies and city types was significant. For the historical and cultural city Nanjing, changing the image compared to awakening memories and not-activation strategies could lead to a significant higher cognition about city’s competence and warmth. In terms of city affection, changing the image compared to awakening memories could bring a significant higher city preference. But compared to not-activation, the differences between groups did not reach significant level. For the modern and technological city Shenzhen, awakening memories compared to changing image, could lead to a significant higher cognition about city’s competence, warmth and city affection. However, compared with non-activation, the differences between groups did not reach significant level.
This study brings some enlightenments to the city manager .it is not a correct awareness that as long as a brand revitalization strategy is applied, it will bring about an ideal effect. City managers should fully consider the city's own characteristics, grasp the needs of the public, select the appropriate strategy and avoid the abuse of strategy. For historical and cultural cities, changing the image can make a momentous significance to promoting the public’s cognition about city’s competence, warmth and city affection, yet awakening memory may not be a wise choice. For modern and technological city, if we want to enhance the public’s cognition about city’s competence and warmth, it is suitable for apply the strategy of awakening memories, but not changing the image. In this study, we found that the effect of psychological compensation was obvious and keeping balance was more applicable in the field of city branding.
超 刘, 文欣 于, 金萍 李 and 思遥 孙. 负面事件形象修复策略对城市品牌关系质量的影响机制研究
Abstract: 在 我国处于飞速发展转型期的背景下,近年许多城市发生了有损城市形象的负面事件。如何修复城市的品牌形象,恢复城市在公众心中的地位,提升城市的品牌形象, 成了当下城市管理者急于解决的问题。过去基于本诺伊特的形象修复理论是从危机事件管理的角度研究,对于形象修复效果没有深入研究。本研究分析当不同类型的 负面事件发生时,采用具体的形象修复策略降低负面事件对城市品牌形象影响的效果。
本研究采用了3*2的实验设计,控制品牌形象修复策略(情感性修复、纠正性修复、不修复)与负面事件类型(人为失误负面事件、管理决策层负面事 件),探索在两种负面事件类型下,使用不同的品牌形象修复策略后,公众对城市的满意、信任和承诺的影响效果,检验形象修复策略的主效应以及形象修复策略同 城市负面事件之间的交互效应。
研究结果显示:品牌形象修复测略主效应明显,当城市中有负面事件发生时,使用情感性修复策略和纠正性修复策略都能显著提升公众对城市品牌的满意 度、信任度和承诺度,并且使用纠正性修复策略的效果会更好。对于人为失误负面事件而言,采用纠正性修复策略相比于情感性修复策略更能提升公众对城市品牌的 满意度和承诺度。对于管理决策层负面事件而言,采用情感性修复策略更能提升公众对城市品牌的承诺度,但是对于城市品牌的满意度来说,使用情感性修复策略并 没有使用纠正性修复策略的效果好。
Thea Vinnicombe and Hio Kuan Kay Wong. Can hotel websites influence destination image? The case of Macau
Abstract: This paper uses a parallel group design experiment to investigate the potential of hotel websites to enhance the image of a destination. The Macau special administrative region (SAR) of mainland China is used as the case-study destination due to its wealth of five star integrated hotel casino resorts and corresponding state of the art property websites. Some of these hotel websites include extensive destination information, while others focus on individual hotel offerings. Two high quality websites at the opposing ends of these extremes were identified. Three groups of potential visitors to Macau from the same city in mainland China were selected for the experiment. Two of the three groups received the experiment treatment, that is, exposure to either the destination rich hotel website (group 1) or to the hotel focused website (group 2). The third group was used as the control. Post experiment testing for destination image perception revealed the groups exposed to the website with rich destination information had a broader and less gaming centric image of Macau relative to the other two groups. This is a pilot study only, being based on three small groups of ten from one origin market city in mainland China. Nevertheless, it demonstrates the potentially important role of one specific stakeholder group in destination image enhancement.
Christophe Alaux, Laura Carmouze and Christine Cuenca. Beyond the City Brand: A Co-ownership Model Structuring Internal Intentions and External Perceptions
Abstract: In a globalizing word, cities are under pressure and have to face an increasing competition. Territories are considered as strategic places using public marketing and branding processes. Indeed, city brand strategy defined by internal stakeholders (i.e. managers) can improve attractiveness by affecting the representation of external stakeholders (i.e. residents, companies and visitors). In a broad evolutionary shift, we consider the city brand in a progressive approach, and the city brand co-ownership as a collaborative and participatory process. The gap identified in the literature refers to the differences and the matches between the city brand strategy and the city brand perceptions. Indeed, the research question of this paper is: how city brand strategy from internal stakeholders is linked with city brand perceptions from external stakeholders?
We opted for an exploratory and qualitative research design with a multiple case study targeting three European metropolises: Amsterdam, Lyon, and Metz. Public reports (i.e. secondary data) and 200 answers from a French representative sample about the city brand perceptions (i.e. primary data) are analyzed with a thematic content analysis.
We propose a dynamic city brand co-ownership model within the relationship between the city brand strategy and the city brand perceptions are moderated by structuring factors.
Magdalena Florek. Towards structured city brand experience
Abstract: AIM:
Smilansky (2009) argues that experiential marketing can be implemented across all sectors, from financial services to fast moving consumer goods (FMCG), from drinks to music, from technology to leisure. Also place brand experience attracts more and more academics’ and practitioners’ interest but still, it needs more elaboration and structuring. The purpose of this paper is to present the importance of the city brand experience in city branding and to propose a structured theoretical approach to designing and managing the experiences.

Based on the literature review the Author defines the structure of city brand experience that allows to design and manage thereof. Structured experiences describe both the objective, interac¬tive encounters between participants and provider manipulated frameworks, and the resulting subjective participant outcomes of experiences (e.g. Duerden, Ward&Freeman, 2015). “According to this conceptualization, any time a provider intentionally manipulates some aspect of an experience (e.g., set¬ting, rules, equipment), it would be considered a structured experience” (Duerden, Ward&Freeman, 2015, 603). What is important for cities in this context is that structured experiences are never an individual affair but rather co-created (Rossman&Schlatter, 2015).

Although much of the discussion in the literature focus on extraordinary experiences that produce powerful emotional responses and long-lasting memories which all brands want to create and achieve (Arnould&Price, 1993; LaSalle&Britton, 2003), it is also important to strengthen and intensify the everyday experiences people have with a city as residents or tourists, which Carù&Cova (2003) find also important as they occur as part of everyday life. Therefore it is crucial to structure and manage the city so-called brand touchpoints. Based on literature review and the modification of the approach proposed by Rossman&Schlatter, (2015) the Author suggests that People, Physical Setting, Objects and Relationships are crucial elements for creating city brand experience that should be consequently developed into single touchopoints or the groups of those. The approach of Aaker (2013) to enhancing brand experience is also discussed to present the managerial aspect of city brand experience.

Experiences are the take-away impressions that customers glean from the various clues (Carbone&Haeckel 1994). Since brand experiences arise in a wide variety of settings, it is key for a city brand to intentionally design and manage some aspects of an experience. This involves management of brand touchpoints that should be identified (the existed and potential ones), evaluated, prioritized and balanced, and finally implemented in the coherent and consistent way.
Abstract: Tourism could have been the panacea for India’s economic woes: a source of both revenue and employment. The truth about Indian tourism is that behind the confident smiles, the claims for rapid growth and unlimited potential, the reality is of too few hotel rooms, inadequate infrastructure, political indifference, mounting garbage, tawdry scams and violent crime making the claims of ‘Incredible India’ seem as hollow. The tourism industry has changed tremendously over time and now tourism is not only about the journey and the destination; it is both these, and more. It is about the experience, the entire gamut of advertising, accommodation, ticketing and bundled packages and events. It is an experiential phenomenon for the tourist that ensures customised comfort and provides for specific needs. In the global ranking Spain, France and Germany were ranked at the top three positions, making them the most tourism friendly economies, where as India stood at 40th rank globally in travel and tourism competitiveness list by the World Economic Forum (India jumps 12 spots, 2017). This case gives an overview of the ‘Incredible India’ campaign, which is an integrated marketing communication undertaken by the Government of India (GOI) to promote India as an ultimate destination. It highlights the measures taken on by the Tourism Department of India within the country and across the world to endorse ‘ Destination Brand India. The Ministry of Tourism is trying to come up with measures to improve infrastructure by supporting the development of tourism circuits, taking up the clean India campaign and investing in skill development of people employed in travel trade. Also, aiming at a world audience, the official website for the 'Incredible India' campaign provide tourist-related information in 11 foreign languages. Even though India’s Tourism department is actively involved in branding India as the World’s top tourist destination, can India fulfil the dream of becoming the world’s number one tourist destination is an interesting question to discuss?
Elisha Woyo. Does local food experiences influence the attractiveness of Windhoek as a city brand?
Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of local food experiences on the attractiveness of Windhoek as a tourism destination brand. Thus, the study will aim to investigate the satisfaction of international tourists’ local food experiences in the empirical context of Windhoek, focusing on the city’s famous Kapana sites and traditional restaurants. The study seeks to answer the following research questions: (1) what are the factors that influences visitation to Windhoek’s Kapana sites and traditional restaurants? (2) What are the significant factors that affect the tourists’ overall experiences in Windhoek? Data were collected between the 30th of March and 31st of May 2017, by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Both purposive and convenience sampling were employed in this study. Data collected will be analysed by means of descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, ANOVAs and regression analysis. Key and significant factors that influences tourists to dine at traditional restaurants and Kapana sites in Windhoek will be identified for the first time in Namibian tourism scholarship. The study will therefore contribute to existing tourism literature on food experiences and branding. Findings of this study have significant implications for Windhoek as a city brand as well as other African cities with regards to formulation of strategies that ensures quality traditional experiences are enjoyed by tourists.
Hong Fan and Kabelo Botlhe Dikobe. The Complexity in Place Branding Research and Practice
Abstract: This paper aims to explore the complexity in place branding research and practice by analyzing the notions of places and distinguishing place branding from place marketing and place promotion. The authors argue that, first of all, since the word ‘place’ embodies rich meanings and it includes country, region, city, town, village, etc., it seems impossible to conduct the research and practice of place branding by using a uniformed theory or a theoretical model. Nation/Country branding differs from the branding of other ‘places’ as the former is affected by ideology and political system of the ‘place’. Village branding differs from that of city and town, as it is comparatively smaller and its branding attributes are more focused. Secondly, branding is different from marketing. Places are dwelled with people, and they are mostly rooted with history and culture. They cannot be marketed as pure commodities. However, the uniqueness and attractiveness can be communicated to the internal and external audiences. Thirdly, the practice of place branding, in which who handles the branding process, who are the main participants, and whether the local residents are engaged in, seem to be sophisticated. The authors maintain that local residents’ voices must be heard and the branding practice will win their hearts. The authors explore how in this globalized world what dictates the practice of place branding in order to reach that final image communication to the target market. Fourthly, place branding is inseparable with communication. The selection of media and social media, events, festivals, celebrities, etc., is also complicated. This is an important area that the authors exploited in bridging the gaps of the place branding construction and cooperation (place making). In distinguishing place branding to place marketing and place promotion, the study explores the tone and intent of the message conveyed.
As repeatedly noted in the literature (e.g Skinner 2008; Warnaby 2009; Hankinson 2010), “partly as a consequence of its inherent interdisciplinary nature, place branding still lacks a clear and commonly accepted theoretical framework that would structure and guide its practical application and fill the evident gap between existing theory and practice.”

This research is based on the interviews of 26 people and a questionnaire survey of 135 people. The paper will present the major findings of the research.

Hankinson, G. (2010). Place branding: A cross-domain literature review from a marketing perspective. In: Ashworth GJ, Kavaratzis M (eds) Towards effective place brand management: branding European cities and regions. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 22-42
Skinner, H. (2008). The emergence and development of place marketing’s confused identity. J Mark Manag 24(9/10):915-928
Warnaby, G. (2009). Towards a service-dominant place marketing logic.Mark Theory 9(4):403-423
Jingjing Chen, Mingyang Yu and Ke Xue. Cognitive Appraisal of City Image and Its Effect on Visit Intent: An Analysis Built on the Stereotype Content Model
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, it is aimed to test how tourists perceive the images of the top 50 tourist cities in China as warmth and/or competence. Second, it investigates how the cognitive appraisal of city image affects tourists’ intention of visiting and to what extent their attitude towards a city mediates this effect.
The Stereotype Content Model, which suggests that warmth and competence describe the core of cognition, has been well established to analyze how people perceive others or entities (Fiske et al., 2007; Aaker et al., 2010). However, the same cognition framework that tourists use to perceive cities is still to be uncovered. Drawing from the social phycology literature of the Stereotype Content Model, the author first conducts a survey about tourists’ perception of the images of China’s top 50 tourist cities as warmth and/or competence. Then, the author hypothesizes and tests the relationships among tourists’ cognitive appraisal of city images, their attitude towards cities and visit intent by a second survey.
The Empirical results suggest that over half of the 50 cities are perceived as an image of warmth rather than competence, while the perception of competence is more associated with tourists’ visit intent than warmth. Furthermore, the combination of warmth and competence also impacts tourists’ intention of visiting a city. The attitude towards a city partially mediates the effect of cognitive appraisal of city image on visit intent.
The paper contributes to understand the sequence from cognitive appraisal of a city image to tourists’ attitude and their visit intent to a city. It fills the gap of applying the Stereotype Content Model to research about how people make sense of city. It also contributes to give practical suggestions to China’s tourist cities, which maybe should show more competence in addition to their warmth if they want to attract more tourist visiting.

Aaker, J., Vohs, K. D. & Mogilner, C 2010, ‘Non-profits are seen as warm and for-profits as competent: First stereotypes matter’, Journal of Consumer Research, vol.37, pp.277–291.
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A., & Glick, P 2007, ‘Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence’, Trends in Cognitive Science, vol.11, pp.77–83.
Keith Dinnie. Region brand internationalization: Gradualism, accelerated internationalization, or serial nonlinear internationalization?
Abstract: Aims
Drawing on internationalization theory from the international business and international marketing disciplines, this study investigates the internationalization patterns of region brands. Based on the study findings, future research directions are identified to enable theory development that reflects the specific characteristics of place brands (Boisen et al., 2011; Braun et al., 2013; ), which differ from the product and corporate brands upon which current internationalization theory is largely based.
Main approach
The study adopted an exploratory, qualitative approach (Birkinshaw et al., 2011; Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007) comprising a series of semi-structured interviews with key informants (Kvale and Brinkmann, 2009). Multi-site research based on twelve Dutch region brands was employed to investigate the scale and pace of region brand internationalization behaviour. The data collection was guided by the following key internationalization behavioural patterns identified in the internationalization literature as follows: gradualism (Hadjikhani et al., 2014; Johanson and Vahlne, 2009), accelerated internationalization (Chandra et al., 2012; Gabrielsson and Kirpalani, 2004; Taylor and Jack, 2013), and serial nonlinear internationalization (Vissak and Francioni, 2013; Welch and Welch, 2009).
Key arguments/findings
The dominant mode of internationalization employed by the region brands in the study was an incremental, gradualist approach. Only two of the twelve regions adopted an accelerated internationalization approach, and there was little evidence of serial nonlinear internationalization behaviour. The results suggest that psychic distance (Brewer, 2007) influences the scope and scale of region brand internationalization, and elements of psychic distance such as language and historical familiarity remain powerful even in the digital age and globalized economy.
The study provides empirical evidence of the internationalization behaviour of region brands and situates these behaviours in relation to existing theories of internationalization manifest in the internationalization behaviours of gradualism, accelerated internationalization, and serial nonlinear internationalization. Future research directions derived from the study’s results include the need to investigate the influence of psychic distance on region brand internationalization, the effect of shifts in governmental strategy, and the implications of the differing nature of place brands (Florek and Kavaratzis, 2014) compared to product and corporate brands.

Hikmah Nurul Qamar and Nurul Ilmi Sudirman. “See the On Who Death A Few Years Ago Change Their Clothes” The Unique Tourism Destination in the East of Indonesia
Abstract: Abstract— There are various traditions of death, one of them comes from North Toraja, a Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ma'nene is a tradition of cleansing the corpses of the ancestors. Corpses are included in this ma’nene tradition at least 3 years after being buried This ceremony holds in August after the harvest. The corpses of the ancestors were removed from the chests placed in the tomb of Patane, a cemetery that had various models, such as a small house located in the mountains or tomb of Batu Liang, is a large stone and then carved into grave. Then, the body of the corpse is cleaned using a brush or cloth. Before being put back into the crate, the corpse clothes are replaced with new clothes.The ceremony is also coupled with slaughtering buffalo and pigs to be eaten during the ceremony. This paper aims to show a unique tradition or culture in a sacred death ceremony and still preserved by the North Toraja community. This paper uses a descriptive qualitative approach. With this research, it is expected to increase the attractiveness of the tourists to see the different cultures directly, one of the Ma'nene traditions conducted by the North Toraja community.
Catia Rebelo. Collaborative visual narratives as a place-based, inclusive and transformative approach
Abstract: In the last couple of decades, Place branding initiatives and strategies have been centred on discourses of competitiveness between countries and regions in regards to attract investments, businesses, visitors and residents (Morgan, et al., 2011). This focus on competiveness and market drive resulted in quick-fix initiatives, (Karavatzis, Giovanardi & Lichrou, 2017) which, therefore, failed to address the geographical and socio-political contexts that define places. A growing number of critiques is pointing towards the “placelessness” (Gale, Bosak, & Caplins, 2013) of such approaches as well as the disregard of local communities needs and views (Ahn, Hym & Kim, 2015). Indeed, Karavatzis, Giovanardi and Lichrou (2017) reinforce these critiques stating that place branding strategies cannot continue to overlook the need for more responsible and socially sensitive approaches, which acknowledge the importance of resident participation in decision-making. Therefore, aiming to contribute with novel and critical view over place branding, this paper purposes a new framework that is place-based, inclusive and transformative. At the same time, it stimulates local communities’ support, engagement and empowerment by giving these communities the opportunity to influence, be part of the process, and communicate their perspectives via their own stories and place values (visual narratives). To test the framework, a collaborative multi-actor case study was applied in two different geographical and social contexts. The first case study was developed in a rather small and deprived village in a rural area in the interior of Portugal, whereas the second case study was applied in a more affluent area which is part of a National Park, therefore, more touristically developed. The groups with whom we collaborated also differ in formation, in the Portuguese case the people were gathered specifically for the research intervention, while in Wales the group already existed, being established to promote tourism around the area. Both groups collaboratively worked with the researcher to create insightful narratives on the human-nature relationships that were converted into two documentaries. Bearing in mind the importance of geographical and sociological contextualization in a place-based approach, some reflections on the discourses provided by the two communities will be drawn. It intends to highlight the main commonalities and differences regarding what is valued by these communities in their respective place. It intends equally to reveal how the process of involvement and cooperation was developed as well as how the ownership and power over the visual narratives (documentary) was undertaken by the communities.
Tatiana Polyakova. Place branding for small places and surrounding areas: interdependence of time and place brands
Abstract: Due to global processes in international economies, territorial competition between places has all over the world increased (Baker, 2012). It has resulted in searching for marketing instruments and solutions and influenced the development of place marketing and place branding techniques. A large number of regions implement place branding strategies in order to attract people or businesses to the place or to prevent migration out of regions (Mikulcak et al, 2015). Today, literature links place marketing and place branding. In many research the definition and terms of place branding is studied with the emphasis on the capacity of the brand to be differentiated and creating and promoting an external image aimed at attracting tourists, investors and creative people (Kavaratzis, 2005). Place brand is considered as a “network of associations” and the process of place branding formation is seen as the interaction between associations connected with places in people’s minds, that are based on materiality, practices, institutions and representations (Kavaratzis and Kalandides, 2015).
Even though place branding is a widely studied and implemented approach, there is very little information and research on place branding at a small, local scale, especially for small cities and surrounding or rural areas, where large budgets are not available and which suffer from the outflow of young and skilled citizens (The Place Brand Observer, 2017). Consequently, all the places are different, and branding process and its implementation substantially depend on local conditions, (Kavaratzis, 2008) that implies a range of specific issues for branding small cities and surrounding or rural areas. Moreover, rural economies are usually cyclical, so supply and demand there depends on a season or time of a year.
In place branding literature some emphasis is put on analyzing attributes of places as a core element of place branding (Kavaratzis, 2015). However, very little attention is paid to the concept of time and time-related issues. Thus, there is a research gap in studying place brand as a time-related concept. Therefore, there is a question, how concepts of time and place are interconnected in place branding theory and applied into practice. The academic context provides the research questions. The central overarching question of the PhD research will be identifying the specificity of place branding for small cities and rural areas in connection with the concept of time – “What is the role of time in place branding for small places and surrounding areas”.
Thus, this study aims at investigating the two gaps in the literature mentioned above (i.e. branding for small places and the relationship between time and branding). To answer the research questions, a series of cases will be studied in Russia and two European countries using preferably the methods based on the interpretative paradigm of social sciences. A series of interviews will be conducted with main places’ stakeholders. The results will be compared with the outcomes of observations and secondary data analysis.
Tatiana Polyakova, Mihalis Kavaratzis and Mike Saren. Place branding in the Russian context
Abstract: Place branding in Russian towns and cities has become a popular approach to regional development since the 2000s (Britvin et al, 2016). One of the features that characterises regional development in the country, is the highly polarised economic structure. Due to global processes, large Russian cities attract several resources and different types of capital, whereas places of a smaller scale have to survive in the competitive environment suffering from a series of severe problems such as high emigration, demographic problems and social unrest. However, big cities also face intense competition as they act as leading actors at the global arena competing as centres of innovation, finance and main tourism destinations as well. To succeed in these competitive games, Russian places have applied contemporary place branding instruments and approaches to their development strategies. Almost every 10th town or city in the country has tried to maintain a branding campaign in different ways. However, many of the attempts have failed due to different reasons (Dubeykovsky, 2015).
The aim of this paper is to analyse the most significant Russian place branding practices in order to identify the common ways in which place branding is conceptualised in Russia and reveal the most relevant theoretical approaches adopted.
The paper describes various cases of place branding practices in Russia including branding major tourism destinations, place branding for former industrial cities, place branding for small places and rural areas and events connected with place branding. This critical analysis is mirrored by the theoretical approaches in the field allowing conclusions to be drawn about place branding implementation in the Russian context.
Anna Augustyn and Ewa Glinska. City branding as a strategy for local economic development – case studies analysis
Abstract: (See attachment)
Cecilia Cassinger, Andrea Lucarelli and Szilvia Gyimothy. Place Branding: A Nordic Perspective
Abstract: This paper examines the Nordic as an ideological, cultural, and geographical site from which to examine place branding. Although a number of studies have addressed Nordic place brands and branding, the peculiarity of branding within the Nordic welfare states remains understudied (Cassinger et al., forthcoming). The unusual open access to the field of practice granted to researchers (at least compared to Anglo-Saxon and European standard), and the particular political, institutional, cultural environment of the Nordic has not fully been unpacked. The limited scope of previous studies on place branding paired with a widespread international interest for the “Nordic” as both a geographical place, moral orientation, and (normative) discourse calls for more research into the global relevance of Nordic place branding. The Nordic is thus not confined to a region, but is approached as an idea that travels across the world.

The literature on Nordic place branding is emergent and deals with disparate themes such as conceptual issues (Andersson, 2014; Niedomysl & Jonasson, 2012), nation branding (Ren & Gyimóthy, 2013; Cassinger et al. 2016), regional branding (Syssner, 2009; Wæraas et al., 2015), and city branding (Lucarelli & Berg, 2011). The present study offers a focused reading across different approaches and empirical fields in order to explore the peculiarity of Nordic place branding. The Nordic is here addressed as an ideological orientation, a cultural construct, and an empirical context from which to explore place branding practices and theories. In particular, the Nordic research tradition is argued to be suited to push critical, but hence far not sufficiently explored, issues in place branding, such as feminism, bio-ethics, sustainability, and social justice. It is further suggested that from a Nordic perspective place branding is characterised by processes of depoliticization, consensus, collaboration, and transparency. These peculiarities may be used for building theories and developing methods, which can be extended to the Anglo-Saxon and European field of research and practice.

Maja Jovic. Corruption and violence against architecture as an ‘organic’ place brand in post-conflict settings
Abstract: Heritage sites and urban benchmarks convey a mythical discourse or the signs of nationhood to domestic and international visitors and contribute to a sense of national identity and belonging. Communal and shared narratives are created by the selective recollection of past events and place identity takes shape when similar perceptions are shared across a community. These emerge out of the framing as specific sites, buildings or monuments as integral to the successful management of a city brand and a coherent identity. However, the problems arise when thinking about which buildings and narratives get selected and which overlooked. Further problems arise when the vision of a future project – or strategic branding initiative for that matter - is in conflict with the residents’ associations of a place.

This paper will argue that, in a fragile state where the ‘post’ in ‘post-conflict’ is still highly debatable, the everyday and institutionalised violence and corruption tell a proportionally bigger story about a place than its architecture. The decisions behind strategic branding initiatives and the way narratives around heritage buildings are constructed become an ‘organic’ brand of a city already struggling to position itself back on a map – violence takes center stage, with heritage on the side.

To do so, the paper will look at transitional countries of Southeast Europe, choosing particular projects in Serbia and Croatia to illustrate these points. These large investments in the built environment ‘use’ history, either in a way that attempts to produce historical continuity or break away from the past deemed problematic, but do so by undemocratic means with little to no participation from the public. In a post-conflict environment, this is particularly complex, as these sites remain contested and associated with painful or celebrated memories. The paper is anchored by four different fields: conflict, tourism, marketing and architecture. The primary research was conducted through interviews with key experts in these four fields, as well as a Critical Discourse Analysis of relevant policies and published media. The paper will argue that the violence employed in (re)creation of these sites leads to a creation of a new cultural narrative – the one where violence becomes embedded in the city’s brand.
Stephen Poon. Experiencing Critical Regionalism as Cultural Heritage Expressions in Tropical Urbanism: Reimagining the Place and Placelessness in Hospitality Design
Abstract: Critical regionalism, architectural vernacularism, place and placelessness are concepts that have major influences on hospitality architecture design in Southeast Asia. In the past three decades, the success or failure of commercial travel for developing economies of Asia had been subject to global intellectual discourse. Many critics question how effectively architects capture the nuances of authentic native cultures and project conscious identities of specific regional communities. The debates are not surprising, since the commercialisation of heritage and culture is tied directly to the marketing and brand image of hotels and resorts and affects mass tourism essential in growing revenue in the travel economy. The issue of place becomes challenging for architects since the audience’s attitudinal response towards what symbolises heritage is not always founded on pure environmental experiences but taught, developed, mediated and constructed by others. This paper seeks to understand the specific issues faced by tropical architectural design and how they negotiate regionalist concepts with attitudinal responses. The aim is to examine in depth the principles of place and placelessness in a critical study of regionalism in tropical architecture. Case study research on the works of the two practicing Asian architects, Twitee Teparkum and Geoffrey Bawa are studied in terms of modernist influences in their hospitality designs. Key finding shows that contemporary architects working in fast-urbanising regions of Asia demonstrate strong commitment to promote regionalism in their work through symbolic reworking of native locality but have tendency to deliver “short-circuit” fusion of Westernised inspirations borrowing from traditional heritage forms, combining with contemporary pragmatics. In spatial design and landscaping approaches for functionality and aesthetics, the analysis found similarities between Teparkum and Bawa, although their works show interpretive variations based on geographic dissimilarities. This suggests that conceptual designs of hospitality architectures aim to create a response that is closer to placelessness, as they are sited within the complex dynamics of modernity, sustainability, temporality and heritage. Hospitality designs have secular, economic, socio-political overlays, and no one perspective can fully capture nor reflect cultural heritage expressions of tropical regionalism. Conclusively, this research argues that due to increasingly urbanist forms of presenting exotic cultures in this century, contemporary architects working on hospitality architecture and landscapes must work with full consciousness of what place branding entails, what heritage symbolism and cultural images mean for natives, and in the long run, must deign to be careful of interpreting hospitality architecture as a form of social elitism.
Andreas Zins, Arno Scharl and Astrid Dickinger. Monitoring changes of destination image representations through mega sports events
Abstract: please, see attachment
Siao Fui Wong and Balvinder Kaur Kler. Malaysian Borneo: Location Branding at its Best
Abstract: Aims
In the digital era, online destination image (ODI) is a vital component of a tourism destination brand. Brand name conjures distinctiveness and is guided by the process of destination branding. However, branding is no longer under the purview of official destination marketers. This paper aims to explore blogger induced branding based on user-generated content for Malaysian Borneo.

Main approach
Qualitative content analysis was used to explore a purposive sample of 25 blogs written in English about Malaysian Borneo. Both Sabah and Sarawak, two separate destinations on one island utilise ‘Borneo’ in their branding. This paper scrutinised the ODI produced by bloggers to understand the image formation process for two destinations located in one geographical location.

Key arguments
Beyond official DMOs, other stakeholders should play a role in the destination branding process (Pike, 2005; Wheeler, 2007). Tourist experiences should be incorporated into the destination branding formation process (Blain, Levy, and Ritchie, 2005). Why? Because brand promise and experiences are acquired on site by the tourists themselves (Pike, 2005; Govers and Go, 2009). Yet, the role played by tourists in the branding process remained understudied. However, a decade later, bloggers are accepted as image formation agents (Tseng et al, 2015).

Three key themes were extracted from blog content: nature, adventure and culture. This ODI for Malaysian Borneo projected by bloggers is comparable to components of geography, namely the physical (where is it), human (who lives here), and human-environment (what is it like). Bloggers’ perceived image promotes an understanding of ‘why does place exist this way’. This insight into the image formation process identifies a missing link in the current process, that of location. Bloggers connect their experiences to the geographical attributes of the location. Therefore, findings suggest bloggers create location awareness due to the use of geography and engage with location branding. This contributes to an understanding of the geographical dimension of branding, deemed insufficient in the past (Pike, 2009; Pike, 2011).

Within the tourism domain, location branding remains understudied even as place branding theory advances. Although findings are contextual and limited to Malaysian Borneo, this paper suggests blogger induced branding is flourishing. Their mode of branding is based on place experiences which in turn are embedded to the geographical attributes of a location. Inadvertently, what has occurred is location branding, an avenue worthy of future work.
Qiyan Zhang and Ling Mu. An Analysis of the Relationship Tendency Between Contemporary Chinese Cultural Creativity Development and City Brand Image
Abstract: Along with the increasing pace of China’s urbanization and globalization, Chinese cultural creativity industry and subsidiary industries will embrace a high-speed development era in the next decade. As a key channel to improve city brand image, cultural creativity is highly valued by China’s city planning and construction bureaus. For cultural creativity itself, due to its aesthetic attributes and representation ways, it has to rely on physical space, tangible arts or textual media to connect with real life space. As a result, cultural creativity is inevitably involved with city physical space, and city image and city brand. Therefore, it is necessary for China’s city planning and construction bureaus to plan ahead and implant cultural creativity to urban landscape, which offers a solution to the conspicuous problem of China’s contemporary cities—“Different cities bear the same landscapes”. This study will offer illustration on the relationship between China’s contemporary city brand image problems and cultural creativity, drawing experiences and lessons from up-to-date real-life city branding cases.
Yanping Liu. Reconsideration of the Positioning of Macao's City Brand: Based on the Perspective of the Strategy of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area
Abstract: This paper starts from the reality of the development of Macao and the Greater Pearl River Delta in recent years. In the context of the established vision of World City of Tourism & Leisure in Macau and the strategic planning of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau Bay Area, this paper revisited the progress and inadequacies of Macao in the journey to World Tourism and Leisure Center.

This paper believes that the construction of a world tourism and leisure center is usually supported by a metropolitan area as a hinterland. Its tourism and leisure industry is not only the fundamental driving force for the overall development of the local socio-economic environment, but also can radiate into a wider metropolitan area and promote the regional industrial structure, infrastructure, thus to promote the sustainable development of the regional economy.

Based on the strategic planning background of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area, this paper examines the six major urban functions related to the vision of building a world tourism and leisure center, ie, brand leadership, industry agglomeration, comprehensive services, innovative demonstration, driving by radiation, and inclusive development.

In addition, this paper also employs the detailed analysis of the CBDI( city branding development index) of 11 cities in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area to measure the pros and cons of Macao's city brand.

Based on qualitative and quantitative analysis, this paper proposes the following strategic recommendations for the strategic city brand positioning of Macau in the map of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area. That is, the functional integration strategy, the cultural foundation strategy, the industry integration strategy, the smart growth strategy, the service first strategy and the brand driving strategy. Through the urban image optimization and city branding/ marketing, the important role of Macao in building a world tourism and leisure center will be effectively promoted.
Bowen Zhang and Ying Song. Understanding Chinese place branding from government perspective: a case study of Chongqing
Abstract: Due to the complexity and multi-disciplinary nature of place branding, there is no universal explanation and theory accepted commonly with decade commitments and research. This research aims to find answers and explanations that at least partly answer how place branding is conceptualised in China. Particularly, Similarities and differences of Chinese place branding are presented in some research, however, theoretical foundation is still vague and weak since it either directly apply marketing theory or branding theory to local context or only focus on practices perspective such as mega events. Hence, this research try to merge this research gap and provide a path to better understand place branding. Research shows that place branding in China is influence and largely controlled by government. Therefore, it is reasonable and meaningful to find what place branding is from government perspective.
Adopting a case study approach and interview as data collection method, this paper, firstly, answers why the government conduct place branding and how they conduct a place branding campaign. Then further conclude what is place branding from a government perspective. Special case is analysed as in reality, place branding has multi-aspects and government cannot fulfil every function.
Andriani Kusumawati. City Brand Personality for Small Cities: The Application of Brand Personality Concept in the City Context
Abstract: Although the application of branding in product and services has been evolving since many decades ago, the concept of city branding is comparatively new. City branding is gaining interest in both research and practice and the concept of brand personality has recently been applied to explain individual perceptions of city characters. City brand personality can serve as a viable representation for building city branding, creating a distinctive identity for the cities and investigating people's perceptions of cities. Applying the concept of brand personality to tourism literature is still a relatively new idea. Current studies on city brand personality are inadequate to support the application of the concept of brand personality to tourism of small cities in Indonesia, as those processes might be unique to Indonesia. This research interest lies in the development of a city brand personality scale that can be applied to cities in the Indonesian context. The paper extends Aaker’s previous empirical work on brand personality by exploring whether cities communicate distinctive brand personalities in residents’s perception. Three small cities in Indonesia namely, Surabaya, Batu, and Banyuwangi that possess a distinct city branding were evaluated and compared. Qualitative research approach was employed through qualitative questionnaires involving 360 residents in three cities to assess five dimensions of brand personality including “sincerity”, “excitement”, “competence”, “sophistication”, and “ruggedness” with a total of 42 personality traits from Aaker’s Brand Personality Dimensions and Traits represented the city. The result of the research using content analysis shows that the city branding communication used by the three different cities have similarities, in terms of involving the residents to participate in tourism activities, selecting tourism ambassadors, and actively conducting activities in the form of festivals and sports events to attract the tourists visitation to their area. In terms of brand personality dimensions, it was found that Batu and Banyuwangi possessed characteristics of full excitement, while Surabaya was considered full of competence. In addition, the residents agreed that the three cities were far from ruggedness. This examination of city brand personality as an application of city branding communication would add to the refining of the theoretical literature on brand personality in tourism and extend the brand personality framework to city branding study.
Ying Jen Pan, Felicitas Evangelista and Lancy Mac. Value Dimensions of a GPT: An Empirical Study of Outbound Tourists in Taiwan
Abstract: The growth in the demand for group package tours in Asia has been significant in recent years. This study developed and tested a framework to identify the value dimensions of a group package tour (GPT) and to determine their effects on satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Using structural equation modelling on survey data collected from 561 GPT travellers in Taiwan, the results show that the overall perceived value of a GPT is reflected in five dimensions namely, functional value, functional product quality, functional service, emotional value and social value. Overall perceived value is found to have a positive effect on satisfaction which in turn has an influence on repurchase and recommending behaviour with implications not just on a specific GPT “brand” but also on the GPT product category as a whole.
Ling Mu and Qiyan Zhang. A Study on the Relationship of City Self-media and City Branding—Using City WeChat Public Accounts as Examples
Abstract: Starting from 2017, city WeChat public account begins to appear as an important communication method in China’s city brand marketing practice. These self-media are devoted to unveiling and communicating city culture that covers topics of city life, cuisine, civil life, tourism, women, etc., and changes the city marketing climate which centered on traditional mainstream media. This essay focuses on China’s city self-media using the examples of five city WeChat public accounts. By studying on the strategy, communication effects and the inadequacies, of the five city WeChat public accounts, this essay explores the methods of improving city marketing effects through city self-media by proposing marketing strategies in four different dimensions: the positioning dimension—by personalizing the city WeChat public accounts, the distance of city self-media and city stakeholders is shortened; the content dimension—tell stories of commoners and use narrative of up-to-date popular culture; the audience dimension—make the transition from online “stream users” to “super users” possible; the media dimension—merge the online and offline activities. In summary, this study attempts to explore the theoretical and practical values of city WeChat public accounts on city brand marketing on the textual and data illustration levels.
Gill Ren and Hong Fan. Research on the City Branding of World’s Ancient Capitals in Internet Media:The Case of Xi’an
Abstract: Aims:
In the context of globalization, the competition of city branding has become increasingly fierce. In order to tie in with the One Belt One Road Initiative and promote the dissemination of Chinese city branding in the international media, we explores the features of the four world ancient cities in English news media.

Main approach:
This article uses textual excavation of promotional materials in English media for Rome, Athens, Cairo, and Xi'an and classifies the extracted words according to their impact on city branding. The categories includes professional, trust, international, real etc. Through the statistical analysis of word frequencies in different categories, the overall images of city brandings is compared between different cities.

Key arguments/findings:
Individual city branding has a strong concentration in certain categories of words, and the higher the concentration the higher the words frequency. There are significant differences in the city branding characteristics of different cities. There are significant differences in the city branding characteristics of Xi'an and other ancient cities in English media.

To build city branding in the international media, Xi'an should focus on its gap with other ancient cities and at the same time highlight its own characteristics in the context of the One Belt and One Road Initiative to shape its own distinctive city branding.

Jakub Gazda. The wine sector in marketing communication of Polish regions
Abstract: AIM:

The aim of this paper is to present and analyze the new way of the communication of local brands for the Polish regions; through wine products and wine culture. The production and popularity of wine in Poland have been growing dynamically in the last years; they are used now for marketing purposes by the regions where the wine production is located.


Discussion is based on the content analysis of available marketing/branding strategies (official documents prepared by Marshal Offices and regional DMOs) along with the actual communication tools (e.g. websites, commercials, events etc) being used in relations to regional wine sector. The analysis will be prepared for selected Polish regions which refer to wine as regional product. Available data will be presented to desribe the wine sector in Poland and its development potential.

The change of alcohol consumption in Poland has led to an increase of the wine share in general alcohol consumption in Poland. It resulted not only in a significant increase in import, but also in the organic development of local producers. At this moment in Poland there are around 200 vineyards in operation which deliver wine to the market. They are also pioneers in wine culture, which became the center of attention of regional marketers. The regions which produce wine started to invest in the development of this industry seeking out the crucial element which could distinguish their regional brands from the rest. Some of them consciously started to include wine products in their regions’ marketing communication enhancing the image of particular region.


It can be concluded that the wine production in Poland finds itself in the experimental phase. However, these regions that quickly noticed the dormant potential of wine culture, are already associated with this sector (e.g. Lubuskie region) and they use these associations to strengthen the identity of their regional brands.

This research is a part of Erasmus + FOODBIZ Project: University and business learning for new employability paths in food and gastronomy, 2017-1-IT02-KA203-036782
Alkmini Gkritzali, Eleni Mavragani and Dimitris Gritzalis. Negative MWOM and value co-destruction for destinations
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of microblogging word of mouth (MWOM) through Twitter on value co-destruction for destinations facing sustained crises. The paper’s main aim is to explore the role of online communities in value co-destruction – as both an individual and interactive concept – in order to contribute to current literature, which has mostly focused on how social media enable value co-creation in tourism. Using the case of the Greek capital, Athens, we explore the extent to which Twitter influencers, such as travel bloggers and news broadcasters, can, accidentally or intentionally, act as value co-destroyers (Ple & Chumpitaz Caceres, 2010) for the destination under study. We argue that, as major influencers, lifestyle accounts and news broadcasters disseminate negative narratives about the destination which, when shared with their followers, can lead to significant value co-destruction within the online community. Acknowledging the argument that consumers are more influenced by negative WOM and MWOM (Chakravarty et al., 2010; Hennig-Thurau et al., 2015), we aim to identify how lifestyle accounts and news broadcasters on Twitter contribute to value co-destruction for destinations in sustained crises as a result of the crisis they are communicating and, that way, amplifying the crisis itself and contributing to the decline of the destination well-being.
We explore the case of Athens as a city destination facing a sustained financial crisis. Our analysis focuses on three years from 2013 to 2015, which have been the most eventful years of the Greek financial crisis so far (Gkritzali et al., 2017; Gkritzali, 2017). During this period, we look at the top five Twitter influencers, according to their klout scores, that are sharing stories about Athens (using the hashtag #Athens) and are a mix of news broadcasters and lifestyle accounts. We use the method of sentiment analysis to capture the attitude and prevailing emotion of the influencers (Dickinger, Költringer, & Körbitz, 2011; Godnov & Redek, 2016; Gkritzali, 2017) throughout the years after study. In addition, we map the journey of the online narratives about Athens that are produced and disseminated by the Twitter influencers, through various retweets and retweeting accounts. This way, we capture the shared online value formation process between Twitter users, who are a mix of stakeholders, such as influencers, residents and visitors. Viewing online value formation as a collective process, we do not focus on individual differences, but rather explore the direction of value formation (co-creation or co-destruction) as well as the volume of online sharing throughout the three years that lie in the heart of the Greek financial crisis.
Jasmin Sera. Cultural identities in nation branding - Casting an eye on the ‘Greater Bay Area’
Abstract: This paper aims to investigate how these different cultural identities of Southern China are represented in the Greater Bay area initiative. The focus of this investigation will be put on social issues and cultural diversity based upon the different historical backgrounds of the surrounding cities. The Greater Bay area seems an interesting case as the areas have gone through different political background and economic systems, such as eg. Hong Kong which was ruled by the English colonial power or Macao which was a Portuguese colony. Taking into consideration the different historical backgrounds of the specific regions an attempt will be made to work out the representation of the cultural identities in the Greater Bay area initiative.
Jiawei Wang and Yu Chen. Media Representation of the Regional Image of Shaanxi Province in China’s Mainstream Media in the One Belt One Road Context
Abstract: As the starting point of the ancient silk road,Shaanxi province is the important pivot of China’s One Belt One Road initiative. The local government attaches great importance to the construction of the regional image of Shaanxi province. There are three kinds of regional image presentation, entity image, media image and the cognitive image. The media image is critical to understand the external world. Media plays an important role in the shaping process of regional brand image. In China, a large number of the news media belong to the “mouthpiece of the party”, the regional image built up by the mainstream media is clearly distinguished from the image represented by the media which dominated by the market.
This paper is based on the news report on Shaanxi province by China’s three mainstream media, People's Daily, Guangming Daily and China Youth Daily,which are the three most representative national newspapers published in China. The objective of this paper is to analyze the regional image of Shaanxi Province in Chinese mainstream media in the One Belt One Road context (2013-2018) via the content analysis methods. Through the analysis of the number of reports, the source of news, the topic of the report and the subject of the report, this paper try to confirm the relationship between the formation of media image of regional brand and the political and economic system, the social tradition and the media system.This paper also suggests that the governance and news dissemination of the regional media image is equally important, and that the formation of the regional brand should focus on refining core functions and core values to obtain a positive and healthy regional media image.
Cecilia Cassinger, Jorgen Eksell, Maria Mansson and Ola Thufvesson. Mediatization of terror attacks and city brand image: A study of the Stockholm attack and the ’Last Night in Sweden’ event
Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increased interest for how perceptions and experiences of fear influence the image of the city. Perceptions of security and safety of places are central to place branding (Coaffee and Van Ham, 2008). Previous research demonstrates that fear and insecurity are largely socially constructed and amplified by mass media (Avraham and Ketter, 2008) and social media (Doosti et al., 2016; Jansson, 2018). The realm of media has become more complex in an era characterised as posttruth in which ”objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief” (Oxford Dictionaries, 2016).

The research aim in this paper is to advance the knowledge of the mechanisms of
how terror in the tourism city is mediatised. To this end, the paper analyses two instances of terror in two Swedish cities as media events (Couldry and Hepp, 2018). The first instance concern the deadly terror attack in Stockholm in 2017, whereas the second instance refer to Donald Trump’s statement of a non-existing terror attack in Malmo. Lefebvre’s (2004) rythmanalysis approach is adopted to investigate rhythms of the media events on Twitter and online news platforms and their consequences for city brand image.

The study suggests that the mediatisation of the non-existing media event had greater impact on city image than the deadly one. At the time of the event, Malmo city suffered from a negative image, which made the city vulnerable to extremist and populist narratives. The celebrity status of Trump and circulation of fake news also created much publicity and attention. The fact that no one knew what had happened open up a space in which speculation and conspiracy fantasies could grow. Real and imaginary elements were woven together in an almost phantasmal way. By contrast, in the Stockholm attack there was no ambiguity with regards to the event.

Elena Elkanova and Elena Zelenskaya. Place Branding Architecture in the Russian Context: Can Sub-branding Fit the Case of St. Petersburg?
Abstract: Aims
The article aims to demonstrate Russian experience of place branding and to show the avenues how place brands are formed and maintained. The key research problem is place brand architecture. The main findings are based on the case of St. Petersburg, although a broader perspective on place branding in Russia is outlined through such cases as Lake Baikal, Karelia, Perm, Skolkovo, and others.
Main Approach
The discussion is structured in line with the following theoretical approaches to place brand formation: «brand networks» by Hankinson [2001; 2004], city branding strategies by Ooi [2011], transfer from rational appeal to emotional and psychological attachment claimed by Kavaratzis [2005], brand architecture strategies by Aaker & Joachimsthaler [2000]. Of most interest to the authors is the latter approach that distinguishes the following strategies: the house of brands, endorsed brand, sub-brand and branded house.
The authors claim that the wide-spread approach when the place is promoted as a unified single brand for various tangible and intangible assets it possesses, may lead to inevitable generalization in brand identification and thus exclude some valuable stakeholders from branding processes.
The authors follow the approach by Aaker [2004] and Aaker & Joachimsthaler [2000] who postulated existence of sub-brands among the corporate brands, and extrapolate this approach to the case of St. Petersburg.
Empirical study is based on an expert survey of key stakeholders involved in brand formation and maintenance in St. Petersburg. Ten in-depth interviews were conducted in October-November 2017.
Key Findings
The results demonstrate feasibility of applying sub-branding approach to the case of St. Petersburg. The experts largely attribute the potential of sub-branding to the following reasons: the wide range of current and potential target groups of St. Petersburg city brand; rich variety of grounds for brand formulation (historical background, cultural heritage, famous citizens); and existing disconnection and lack of common action among various groups of brand stakeholders on the supply side.
The study contributes to the development of place branding theory applying sub-branding approach. The variety of sub-brands cannot be compiled to form a single destination brand. Moreover, though studied sub-brands are perceived as attractive, they are weak and recognized only by residents. Thus, the research reveals need to support sub-brands in order to involve all the stakeholders in branding processes and to satisfy the needs of different target groups.
Rachel Luna Peralta. Vlogging and Place Branding: How Non-Filipino Travel Vloggers Promote the Philippines
Abstract: This presentation aims to critically examine the use and potential of video blogs or vlogs shared on Facebook for place branding. In particular, it will analyze the travel vlogs of popular non-Filipino travel vloggers - Lost LeBlanc, BecomingFilipino, Nas Daily, and Drew Binsky - and how these vlogs promote the Philippines as a destination. The data were gathered through a qualitative content and narrative analysis of the user-generated videos posted on the travel vloggers’ Facebook accounts. Content and visual analysis of the videos as well as viewer responses support the arguments that travel vloggers and their respective vlogs play a key role in creating an online destination image of a place. Stories and images in vlogs vividly create destination images, which are necessary and fundamental for place branding. Travel vlogs are representations of destination experiences, from which public and private tourism agencies can use in their promotional/marketing agenda.
Gerald Fry. Branding, Misbranding, and Rebranding Thailand, Past and Present: International, Interdisciplinary Perspectives
Abstract: Aims:

In 2017, Bangkok passed London and Paris as the world’s most popular city destination (Talty, 2017). Tourist arrivals have dramatically increased in recent years and decades, contributing to Thailand having the world’s lowest unemployment rate among major countries (Economist, 2018, p. 80).

Major Aim
To develop a deeper understanding of Thailand’s growing international popularity, it is important to examine thoroughly how Thailand has been branded as a place (de Blij, 2008). That is the aim of this study, to examine the evolution of Thailand’s branding looking at this phenomenon from international/interdisciplinary perspectives. A fascinating question is how Thailand’s branding of itself contrasts with that by outsiders.

Main Approach

Conceptual Frameworks
The key conceptual framework guiding this study is the “crisis of representation”. Leading scholars who have articulated this perspective are: Alatas and Hassan (2005), Said (1978, 2012), and Smith (2012). Scholars and journalists from the West have often misrepresented the non-Western world. Thus, relevant to this paper is the question: how accurate is the external branding of Thailand?

The two research methods of this study are 1) case study research (Yin and Campbell, 2018) and 2) content analysis (Correai, et al., 2015; Krippendorf, 2018). This is basically a case study of Thailand and its branding over time.

Data Sources
The following documents will be mined to see the different ways Thailand has been branded over time:
1)Major historical books written on Thailand (e.g.., Kornerup, 1928; Loti and Baines, 1930; Morgan, 1996). Two key criteria for choice of material to review are: 1) how often it appears in the world’s libraries and 2) its international prominence.
2)For contemporary external branding, a content analysis of articles from the New York Times, 2017-2018, about Thailand.
3)For Thai internal branding, an examination of key documents of the Tourist Authority of Thailand (TAT)

Key Arguments/Findings
While this research is on-going, diverse brandings of Thailand have been identified, many positive but some negative, and there are important differences between the Thai and external brandings. Among key branding discovered thus far:

“Friendly Siam” (Kornerup, 1928)
“Land of smiles” (Thailand, 2010)
“Amazing Thailand” (Kim and Morgan, 2003)
“Kitchen of the world” (Sasinand, 2004)
“Unequal Thailand” (Pasuk and Baker, 2017)

This research shows how Thailand is being branded in many diverse ways, but basically being presented as a truly amazing place which helps explains its dramatic growth as a popular tourist destination.
Sylwia Dudek-Mańkowska and Mirosław Grochowski. From creative industries to the creative place brand - some reflections on city and regional branding in Poland
Abstract: Poland has been experiencing a profound economic transformation for over a dozen years. Regions change their faces, some in a dramatic way. In regions where metropolitan cities play a key role as engines for development, the transformation was less dramatic. Part of the process of economic transformation is the internationalization of the Polish economy and the necessity of opening up to the world. In the era of globalization local, regional and national economies must use different incentives to become and stay competitive. The creative sector is a source of such incentives and plays a key role in stimulating economic development processes. This sector can be also used in the place branding process. The creative ambiance of a place can become an unique asset for the strategic planning of its brand. These practices were recently developed in many cities and regions, trying to adopt the creative place image.

The number of research directions might be identified in the international studies on place branding. Studies on American and Western Europe city brands might be found in the literature, much less interest is paid to research on cities from Central and Eastern Europe. This gap in research should be undoubtedly filled in order to broaden the knowledge of mechanisms determining place brands, as units from Central and Eastern Europe differ from those in Northern America or Western Europe – not only when it comes to their identity, but also in terms of their marketing instruments and capabilities.

There is an increasing interest in the creative sector in Poland, but research on its impact on the brand of the place is still lacking. The paper presents the newest trends in development of the creative sector in different regions of Poland. A typology of cities and regions as locations of specific branches of the creative sector is proposed to point out how their use creativity as asset for the place branding. The study showed examples of cities and regions that create the place brand based on the creative sector as well as cases of units which completely overlook this asset. The cases of cities where there is no concentration of creative entities and yet try to create a creative image will also be discussed.

We would like to submit a full paper.
Luh Micke Anggraini. Place Branding Strategy of Indonesian Tourism Destinations
Abstract: Place branding assists in communicating how a place will positively develop in the future, how it will benefit the community and increase economic opportunities. This study is to analyze the approaches in the branding strategy of the emerging and existing tourism destinations in Indonesia. Firstly it begins with the literature review of the nexus between place branding and tourism. Next, the paper elaborates the role of identity, history and heritage as the conservative approaches, and creativity and innovation as the progressive approaches in developing the branding strategy, followed by their applications in selected tourism destinations in this study. This qualitative research examines the use of different methods in the construction of branding identity of the new and existing tourism destinations, by analyzing photographic materials and emotional adjectives connected with them in the social media promotions.

The findings suggest that by remarking Indonesia is culturally and naturally diverse and facing different stages of economic and community development, the use of conservative approach is dominant in rural destinations, while in urban regions, creativity and innovation are the orientations in the place branding. Lack of branding expertise is also apparent from the duplication and similarities among strategies, undermining the place distinctiveness. Most of the place branding tend to use the country branding as a reference, signifying the dependence on the national government (Ministry of Tourism) in directing the local tourism strategies.
This study concludes by suggesting that place branding practices in tourism destinations in Indonesia are still in their infancy and underdeveloped, with the implication for marketing and communication strategy.
Adam Johns. Made in Japan or Made in Kyoto? Branding with place in Kyoto’s traditional crafts
Abstract: Despite often having been ignored in place branding and country of origin studies (Dinnie, 2004), cultural products are both contributors and beneficiaries of a city’s, region’s, or nation’s place brand. Thus, traditional or heritage craft industries provide an ideal opportunity to examine the interplay of place branding efforts and the use of place brands by local firms in their marketing activities. Yet as craft producers seek to develop contemporary products for global markets to ensure their survival, to what extent do producers in different regions exploit cultural heritage and corresponding place brands in order to develop and communicate a coherent value proposition?

This paper is part of a comparative study of regional place brands in Japan that examines how local producers utilise corporate, region, or nation brand in their marketing efforts. Focusing on one of the strongest regional brands of Kyoto (Brand Research Institute, 2017), it seeks to examine how firms that benefit from a strong regional brand make use of the brand. The distinction between identity and image (cf. Pike 2002, Roll 2006) of both producer and place brand is likely to grow (in line with the 3-gap model presented in Govers and Go, 2009) as these products are extended, adapted or reinvented (Keegan, 1993) for overseas markets.

To address this issue a series of questions are proposed. First, what is the Kyoto brand, its place identity and projected image? Secondly, what are the different product and branding elements that producers use in their ’traditional’ product offerings? These elements include product attributes, sourcing and production location elements based on a partitioned [place] of origin framework (cf. Chao 1993, 1998, Thakor 1996), and communication elements. Thirdly, given the deeply culturally embedded nature of these products (cf. Douglas, Craig, and Nijssen, 2001), do producers adapt the above elements to either minimise or accentuate aspects of the regional identity, and/or adapt branding efforts to exploit regional or national brand?

This paper examines multiple cases of iconic Japanese and Kyoto crafts of Kyo-yaki (Kyoto-ware) ceramics and Kyo-shikki (Kyoto lacquerware). Semi-structured interviews with owner/managers are complemented with secondary data, analysis of corporate communications, and observations of trade shows. A comparison with other regional brand highlights different strategies for use of corporate, regional, and nation brand.

Findings indicate that place incongruence on the production side actually coheres with traditional practices and that use of the local brand becomes more nuanced in international markets.
Dian Wang. City image advertising in China: A review of the Chinese-language literature
Abstract: City image advertising is one of the most frequent means employed by the Chinese government in order to cope with the increasing competition among cities. Despite the extensive scholarly discussion on city image advertising in China as a city branding communication/a city marketing mix tool, existing studies have dedicated limited attention to city image advertising. Moreover, considering the fact that the most prestigious international journals are written in English, and most Chinese scholars in this research field publish in Chinese-language, international academia has limited access to current knowledge on city image advertising in China. Hence, a review of the published academic works in Chinese language about city image advertising in China is necessary.

This paper critically reviews studies published in mainland China on the topic of city image advertising from 2006 to 2018. Firstly, this paper presents a quantitative content analysis on existing publications in order to identify the main features, such as the over-time distribution of publications, types of topics, research methods, etc. Secondly, this paper qualitatively examines current knowledge about city image advertising in China. Lastly, it summaries and evaluates the current status of and challenges to Chinese-language studies on city image advertising in China, and suggests some directions for future research.

By analysing the Chinese-language literature on city image advertising in China, this paper contributes to a better understanding of the phenomenon in China, which remains marginal and in need further academic attention at international level.
Andrew Hoyne. Not Just the Icing on the Cake: Examining the Role of Creativity and Innovation in Place Branding Strategies
Abstract: In today’s competitive climate, creativity and innovation are crucial ingredients for communities, precincts, suburbs, cities and countries to attract and retain talent. Creative industries, including the arts, media, architecture and design, are an economic powerhouse far greater than people imagine. Nations that score better on the Global Creative Index have proven higher levels of economic output as well as equality, human development, happiness and wellbeing. As a result, the role of place branding and its ability to both inspire and reflect creativity and innovation, has become more vital than ever before.

This insightful and inspiring presentation will explain how business typically looks at creativity as an afterthought rather than a driver of growth and understanding. It’s seen as the icing on the cake. But what if it was the cake too?

Using a series of local and international case studies, showcasing place brands that have championed creativity and innovation, this talk will illustrate how these industries can become the engine rooms of urban regeneration and economic vitality.

The talk will look at Australia’s cultural capital of Melbourne and how it supports its creative industries. It will also examine key Melbourne initiatives such as the Innovation District, an alliance between the local government, RMIT and the University of Melbourne, to create more opportunities for knowledge workers, students and innovative businesses. Melbourne is now ranked 25th among 500 in the Innovation Cities index (2016-2017), making it one of the most innovative cities in the world.

From a global perspective, we look at Berlin. The city's focus is split between creative and innovation-focused economic activities. Berlin is already known for its thriving arts community but the city now also attracts innovators in tech, IT and design fields, all keen to set up shop. The talk will provide unique insights gleaned from professional study tours to the city coupled with ongoing dealings with Berlin Partner, Berlin’s official business development agency and the body responsible for the city’s marketing and image campaigns. It will explain how Berlin is creating networks, hubs and business forums that encourage businesses to get together and explore collaborations and increase prosperity. It will also reveal how the city strategically provides opportunities for creative businesses to test the waters via funding co-working environments.
Magsud Mammadov. Multi-Branding of Nation: Azerbaijan, The European Charm of the Orient
Abstract: Abstract:
This paper attempts to analyse the ways in which Azerbaijan has utilised international sport, cultural and political events to create a multifaceted nation brand for different purposes (namely political and economic). The government’s strategy has been to highlight its various identities (European, Muslim, Turkic, Oriental) in order to engage different target audiences (Western countries and others, primarily the Middle East).

From 2008, energy exports began to generate vast amounts of wealth for the state, allowing Azerbaijan to launch its nation branding and public relations strategy at the international level. Having been part of the Soviet Union for 70 years, Azerbaijan was relatively unknown globally. As an independent state, the country aimed not only to put itself on the global map, but also to create positive associations and a good reputation. Beginning with the Eurovision Song Contest in 2012, the country has hosted a series of international sport and cultural events such as the European Games (2015), Azerbaijani Formula 1 (2016, 2017, 2018), the Islamic Solidarity Games (2017), the International Jazz Festival (2005-2018), and International Shopping Festivals (2015-2018). Alongside cultural events, Baku has also gathered former and current world leaders for international political summits and forums, such as the World Forum on Intercultural Dialogue (2011, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2017), the Baku International Humanitarian Forum (2011-2014, 2016, 2018), and the Baku Global Forum (2013-2018).

During this time, the capital city of Azerbaijan has undergone a drastic makeover, transforming itself from a typical Soviet city to a modern and highly cultured space. The construction of futuristic buildings by world-famous architects has led to the moniker the Dubai of the Caucasus, while the re-design of Soviet buildings, streets, and parks to match French-style architecture has prompted people to refer to it as the Paris of the Caucasus. This paper will explore how Azerbaijan started to brand itself when sporting, cultural, and political events put Azerbaijan on spotlights providing access to broad global audience. More specifically, it examines how Azerbaijan has deployed its multi-layered, multi-faceted cultural identity and unique geographic location for nation branding purposes (as a crossroads of western and eastern civilizations and belonging to both Asia and Europe).

The paper argues that for western audiences, Azerbaijan has branded itself as a secular, culturally Muslim Asian country in order to achieve its diplomatic and soft power ambitions. For non-western audiences, it presents itself as European for economic purposes, namely to attract tourism and investment.
Louise Grimmer. Marketing the city: An examination of precinct marketing programs and retail resilience
Abstract: Retailing is an essential social, economic and cultural activity, and a strong retail sector makes a significant contribution to local communities and to local, state and national economies. Small, independent retailers contribute to their local communities by providing a variety of goods and services, employment opportunities, and an alternative to the offerings from multinational corporations. However, increases in the array and availability of products, with accompanying price transparency, the globalisation and expanding dominance of large retail chains, tremendous growth in online sales, rapid advances in communication and distribution technologies and turbulent economies all contribute to a volatile and competitive environment for ‘traditional’ bricks and mortar retailers, particularly small retailers.

This study answers the call by Rao and Summers (2016) for further research on resilience theory in the context of retailing. Retail resilience has been defined as ‘the ability of different types of retailing at different scales to adapt to changes, crises or shocks, that challenge the system’s equilibrium, without failing to perform its functions in a sustainable way’ (Fernandes & Chamusca, 2014, p. 2). The concept of ‘retail resilience’ has been applied in recent years in town planning, spatial and geographical studies of retail high streets, main streets and town centre developments (e.g. Dobson, 2015; Barata-Salgueiro & Erkip, 2014; Fernandes & Chamusca, 2014; Karrholm, Nylund & Prieto de la Fuente, 2014). This study aims to extend the notion of retail resilience by examining the role of precinct marketing programs in fostering resilience for retailers operating within the geographical boundaries of such marketing programs.

The ability for individual retailers and for retail precincts (such as central business districts) to leverage resilience is particularly important, as ‘traditional’ bricks and mortar retailers operate in an increasingly challenging landscape as mentioned earlier. Indeed, in many countries, large and small retail firms are exiting the industry as high streets, town centres and suburban shopping districts report declining visitor numbers. In response, local councils with responsibility for economic development, continue to manage and refine marketing programs designed to promote shopping precincts as destinations offering an array of retail, service and hospitality options for shoppers and visitors.
Given the importance of small, independent retail firms an understanding of the factors contributing to firm performance and to the notion of ‘resilience’ is critical. Marketing can be considered one such factor, and this research focuses on the objectives and impact of retail precinct marketing programs in four city sites across the island state of Tasmania in Australia. The main objective of these marketing programs is essentially to provide retailers ‘free’ marketing through various promotional campaigns, activation activities and other initiatives promoting the city centre. To date there has been little research conducted examining the rationale, design and objectives of such programs and their impact on retailers. This study is therefore being conducted in two stages; this paper focuses on the findings from stage one which involves interviews with representatives from local councils and affiliated organisations responsible for marketing and/or economic development for the CBD in each site.
Maja Konecnik Ruzzier, Mojca Smrekar and Mitja Ruzzier. Customer-based brand equity for small tourist destination: The case of Soca valley
Abstract: The paper highlights and draws attention to the importance of branding small destination, the concept, which is also poorly researched at the global level. The majority of previous studies (Konecnik and Gartner, 2007; Chen and Myagmarsuren, 2010; Bianchi and Pike, 2011; Bianchi et al., 2014) have investigated bigger destinations, mostly on a country level. In our example, we decided to investigate a small tourist destination Soca valley. The Soca valley region lies in Slovenia, European Union country, near the border with Austria and Italy. It is famous for its divine nature, threading through it is the magically aquamarine Soca River. The Soca valley brand, developed in 2011, embraces all latest directions that are most desirable for a successful destination branding. It is closely related with national I feel Slovenia brand, developed by several Slovenian stakeholders in year 2007 (Konecnik Ruzzier and de Chernatony, 2013).

Within this paper, we focus on analyzing the customer-based brand equity of Soca valley. The study instrument was adopted from the previous research, which evaluated consumer brand equity for a tourist destination (Konecnik and Gartner, 2007; Bianchi and Pike, 2011; Bianchi, Pike and Lings, 2014). We decided to include four elements for evaluation: awareness, image, perceived quality and loyalty. The results of the quantitative research, conducted on 211 Slovenian potential visitors, imply, that measurement instrument can be transferred also on the case of small tourist destination. In addition, results imply that Slovenians are aware of Soca valley, have a positive image about it, which is especially related to its beautiful nature, mountains and rivers and great opportunities for outdoor activities. Natural attractions (more functional attributes) were best evaluated also in regard to quality dimension. Finally, respondent seemed to be loyal visitors, as they evaluated behavioral and attitudinal items high. Slovenian based brand equity for Soca Valley is very much in line with its proposed identity and the idea of its sustainability. The proposed findings can provide a good basis for upgrading its further long-term strategies.
Abstract: Tourism marketing is a management process which aims to be more influential in meeting demands of current and potential customers and satisfying tourists better by comparison with rival enterprises and destinations. Tourism marketing for cities is an activity causing economic, politic and social changes in a city and it brings developments into the operational environment of cities. While cities rapidly increase their attractions by means of city marketing, they are turning their mobile resources and corporate investments into elements that visitors and residents benefit from. Through this concept and methods, cities may become brands and all products and services produced by that city become more desirable for the target audience. Today, developing information and communication technologies are used effectively in all areas as well as tourism and particularly with the aim of introducing touristic entities. At the same time, new technologies also bring innovation to urban life and process of urban design.
The cities which apply smart tourism applications are increasing the experience of tourists as they can increase their competitiveness. In the study, providing a competitive advantage in terms of tourism region of the important "smart cities", "smart destination" concept and some tourism regions in Turkey "smart city" applications have been mentioned.
Iuliia Mykhailiuk. The role of stakeholders in managing place brand in crisis: Stavanger region case study
Abstract: Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to examine which stakeholder interaction and behaviour patterns contribute to the resilience of place brand at the time of crisis. Current literature suggests that the role of stakeholders has not been extensively studied despite its potentially substantial effect on the place brand.

Methodology: Case study research design was used to examine the objectives of the study. Anholt (2000) nation brand hexagon was utilised in the context of region brand to classify and differentiate between various place brand dimensions and groups of stakeholders that represent them. Semi-structured interviews with the key stakeholders, participant observation and secondary data analysis was used to explore the stakeholder roles and behaviour patterns.

Findings: The results indicate that the current practice of developing and managing place brands as corporate brands does not capitalise on the primary advantage of the place brand- its stakeholders. The findings strongly suggest that the agency over place brand management and development should be given to its stakeholders whilst place brand manager, should play a role of coordinator and develop infrastructure for stakeholder interaction. In more practical terms, the findings point to the necessity of recognising the central role of stakeholders and their interaction in successful place brand management. A calculated balance between the regulation and flexibility is needed when it comes to managing place brands.

Contribution to Theory: Research findings highlight the value of stakeholders and their networks in place brand development and management. Additional studies need to be done on the intersection of stakeholder theory and its application in place branding field.

Contribution to Practice: Despite the fact that results from case studies cannot be directly generalised, the emerging pattern of changes in stakeholder behaviour during the certain conditions can be identified and later used for managing crisis response in places with the similar context.
Patrícia Monteiro and Beatriz Casais. Residents’ involvement and identification with City Branding: a study about the participation of Porto residents
Abstract: Branding is assuming an important role in cities. Places also face competition for tourists, investments or residents, and cities need to create city branding to achieve differentiation. The main studies about this topic argue that stakeholders’ engagement in a process of city branding is crucial for the success, since they influence the city and they are the main evaluators of the brand. Although it is optional, the literature indicates that managers should involve residents in the process of creating the city brand.
This study discusses the involvement of residents in the creation of the city brand, following the theoretical recommendations. The city of Porto was chosen as a case study of residents’ participation in the creation of the brand, since a new brand of Porto was created in September 2014, and it is still being assessed the results of the brand. Furthermore, the brand created in Porto received several international awards.
We followed document analysis in a first stage of research, analysing the descriptive book about the brand. Then, in order to understand whether the residents were involved in the creation of Porto brand, it was conducted an interview with the communication responsible for Porto City Council. In a third phase, and to ascertain if residents identified themselves with the brand created and perceive their sense of belonging to the city, it was hold a focus group.
The results indicate that residents were involved in the creation of Porto brand, as recommended. They identify themselves with the brand created, however they consider that the brand is applied only to tourists, which indicates that the internal communication between managers and residents needs to be improved. Communication is the first tool to develop with residents and has to be continuous and effective.
Bo Liang. An Integrative Framework for Branding the Greater Bay Area
Abstract: Place branding is a relatively new but growing area of research. Place branding is defined as applying branding strategy and other marketing techniques to promote a place’s image. Place branding is an interdisciplinary field, building on a variety of disciplines such as marketing, tourism, communication, and anthropology. This study aims to propose a framework for branding the Greater Bay Area by a marketing approach. The theoretical foundation of this study is the brand leadership model by Aaker and Joachimsthaler’s (2000).

1. Branding Identity and Positioning
A place brand is a distinguishing name and/or symbol used to identify a place from other places. Brand identity is a unique set of brand associations representing what the brand stands for and offers to customers as an aspiring brand image. Multiple stakeholders should be involved in the process brand identity building and development. Stakeholders include: citizens, businesses, non-profit organizations, and government agencies. We propose that the brand identity of the Greater Bay Area is: an integration of dynamism, high-tech (smart city), and sustainability (eco-city).

2. Brand Architecture
Brand architecture is the structure of brands within an entity. The architecture of a place brand should define how the brand and sub-brands of this place support each other, and how the sub-brands reflect or reinforce the core purpose of the brand to which they belong. We propose the sub-brands of the Greater Bay Area brand include:
• Corporate branding: Huawei, Tencent, Cathay Pacific
• City branding: Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Macau
• Event branding: art festivals, film festivals, music festivals. lantern festivals
• Food branding: Cantonese/Yue Cuisine, Dim Sum

3. Brand Building
Brand building means creating communication programs to change customer perceptions, reinforce attitudes, and create loyalty. At the Internet age, information spread fast and globally. Anyone with access to the internet is able to create, send and receive information. That means, any citizen, business, non-profit organization, and government official and agency may send place-related stories to the world anytime anywhere. The Greater Bay Area should promote its resources with the efforts from all citizens, communities, businesses and organizations---a bottom-up branding approach. Especially, we suggest an integrated marketing communications strategy: integrating multiple channels (e.g., social media, TV, brochures).
Ole Have Jørgensen. The significance of respondent’s age in city branding
Abstract: Place and city branding has not yet reached the level of insight into segmentation found in traditional marketing where there is a long tradition for demographic, geographic, geo-demographic, psychographic, behavioral, contextual and situational segmentation. These variables and their influence on the attitude of target groups have hardly been given any attention in city brand literature so far.
This coincides with a somewhat confusing discussion about definition of target groups since largely the same groups will often be seen as stakeholders in the brand process. Only few studies go deeper into the target group issue. Merrilees et al. (2011) used a two-stage quantitative study to compare two stakeholder groups (residents and resident business owners) and fond that the two groups had different brand meanings associated to a city brand and each stakeholder group applied their own filter to interpret the meaning of the brand. Zenker and Beckmann (2013) show structural differences for the city brand perceptions of two different target group and the differences between perceptions of an external and an internal target group (involving creative class members and university students). Eventually Zenker and Braun (2017) propose a branded house strategy to deal with a diverse target audience and an advanced brand management including target group-specific sub-brands.
The most recent and comprehensive definition of a city’s brand has been given by Zenker and Braun (2017, p. 275): “network[s] of associations in the consumers´ mind based on the visual, verbal and behavioral expression of a place and its stakeholders. These associations differ in their influence within the network and in importance for the place consumers”. The cognitive assessment refer to beliefs or knowledge about place attributes but beliefs or knowledge may also (sometimes but not necessarily always) lead to affective perception and evaluation. In consequence results of place branding primarily but not exclusively belong to the affective domain of attitude and should therefore be measured and evaluated within that domain as pointes out by Boisen et al. (2017). But the general lack of evidence, quantitative data and time series makes it very difficult to describe and understand .
The present study is based on data from the Danish city of Horsens (90,000 inhabitants in the municipality). For years the image of the city was dominated by a large state prison (named Horsens State Prison), and Horsens was earlier perceived as violent and criminal, in the media described as the "Chicago of the North" and "The City of Fear" (Jørgensen 2017). Annual aided Top of Mind Awareness measurements (TOMA) since 1997 show that 40 – 50 % of citizens living outside Horsens connect the city´s name to the prison, thus more or less defining the city’s brand.

The prison was closed in 2006 and after a period with political and local resistance to any municipal involvement, the city council finally decided to acquire the empty institution and to try to further develop the old buildings as a potential flagship project (THE PRISON) for the city, taking advantage of the high national knowledge factor. This is taking place at the moment (see Jørgensen 2019’, in press).

From 2010 the annual TOMA included a question to respondents who mentioned the prison. They were asked whether the prison was “positive” or “negative”? Since 2010 the” positive” attitude has increased significantly from a level of 23 % to 60 % in 2017, while the “negative” response has been stable around 10-15 %. The “neutral/don’t know” response has dropped significantly from 60 to 27 %.
Following an analysis of the change of affective assessment of THE PRISON (Jørgensen 2019 in press) the TOMA, however, also clarified that there was an essential age parameter related to this change of attitude. The purpose of the present study is to analyze further how respondent’s age may influence the perception of the prison and consequently the image effect on Horsens, and where different age groups get their information from. The analysis is based on data derived from the annual TOMA and “Knowledge Analysis 2016 and 2018” organized by THE PRISON. These analyses are based on elaborate questionnaires and using the “Analyse Denmark´s” online DK-panel holding 30.000 citizens. Responses were collected from a web panel including 1026/1004 (2016 and 2018 respectively) representatively selected respondents (national level) and 1043/1011 representatively selected respondent from the Eastern part of Jutland (regional level.

TOMA 2000 – 2017 is used to illustrate how the cognitive assessment of the prison is stable at a high level over time, but that it is age dependant. There is no statistically significant difference between the period where the prison was in use (until 2006) and the years after closure.

From 2010 to 2017 the affective assessment shows how the positive attitude towards the prison has increased significantly, the neutral assessment has decreased significantly, while there is no change in the negative assessment. The youngest age group is significantly more positive than the oldest, the oldest age group significantly more negative than the youngest – all other differences between age groups are insignificant.

“Knowledge Analysis 2016 and 2018” illustrate how “Friends who have visited THE PRISON”, “TV” and “Printed press and newspapers” are the most important information sources for both regional and national respondents. Information from friends decrease with higher age, information from printed press increase with age while TV is an important and relatively stable source of information for all age groups. There is a significant drop in the importance of printed press for the two youngest age groups from 2016 to 2018.

By comparison the statement "Postings on Facebook (shared or sponsored)" play an important role for the two youngest age groups regionally and nationally but has a limited effect for the + 50 age groups.
The brand of a city contains cognitive as well as assertive elements. This study illustrates that neither cognitive nor assertive assessments of the essential part of a city’s brand are static over time but may be subject to change. And that cognition as well as assertion may be age dependent.
The study also illustrates that different age groups get their information from different sources and that these information sources are dynamic over time.
Target group age should therefore be understood as a key component in city brand projects and brand communication should be sufficiently multifaceted to embrace different age groups.

Cheong Hin Hong, Henrique Fátima Ngan, Ying Zhao, Chung-En Yu and Jinpeng Liang. Perceptions of intra-national exotic destinations in the Greater Bay Area
Abstract: A close examination at the tourist destinations recommended by TripAdvisor and official tourist websites reveals many of the 11 Greater Bay Area (GBA) cities have been left with historical western architectures, whereas artificial foreign landmarks are found in the rest of the cities. The appeal of exotic places has been explained by the push-pull motive model (Correia, Oom do Valle, & Moço, 2007) and variety-seeking behaviour (Oppermann, 1996), such that tourists can gain social, adventurous and intellectual rewards. In the cases of Macao and Hong Kong, the colonial traces have been seen as a major attraction for Chinese tourists (Arlt, 2006). However, other GBA cities are less known to exploit their exotic landmarks; even less is the knowledge of the effect of intra-national exotic attractions. The current study collected survey data from 396 participants from mainland China and Macao in an attempt to understand their perceptions and preferences towards Chinese and western attractions in the 11 GBA cities. A subsequent eye-tracking experiment was conducted with 40 of the participants to examine if their verbalised preferences align with their visual patterns of the destinations. Preliminary analyses of both the survey and the experiment suggest a much stronger preference towards exotic destinations than Chinese ones among both the mainland Chinese and Macao Chinese populations. Governments of the GBA cities are therefore advised to further promote their existing exotic landmarks and develop them so that a natural “circle” of exotic attractions can be developed in the GBA to attract and retain national tourists.